Words whose third letter is R

Acrania(n.) The lowest group of Vertebrata, including the amphioxus, in which no skull exists.

Acraspeda(n. pl.) A group of acalephs, including most of the larger jellyfishes; the Discophora.

Acrocephalic(a.) Characterized by a high skull.

Acrocephaly(n.) Loftiness of skull.

Acrophony(n.) The use of a picture symbol of an object to represent phonetically the initial sound of the name of the object.

Acrostic(n.) A composition, usually in verse

Acrostic(n.) A Hebrew poem

Adreamed(p. p.) Visited by a dream; -- used in the phrase, To be adreamed, to dream.

Aerial(a.) Of or pertaining to the air, or atmosphere; inhabiting or frequenting the air; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air; as, aerial regions or currents.

Aerographer(n.) One versed in aeography: an aerologist.

Aerographic(a.) Alt. of Aerographical

Aerographical(a.) Pertaining to aerography; aerological.

Aerography(n.) A description of the air or atmosphere; aerology.

Aerology(n.) That department of physics which treats of the atmosphere.

Aeromancy(n.) Divination from the state of the air or from atmospheric substances; also, forecasting changes in the weather.

Aerophobia(n.) Alt. of Aerophoby

Aerophoby(n.) Dread of a current of air.

Aerophyte(n.) A plant growing entirely in the air, and receiving its nourishment from it; an air plant or epiphyte.

Aeroscopy(n.) The observation of the state and variations of the atmosphere.

Aerosphere(n.) The atmosphere.

Africanism(n.) A word, phrase, idiom, or custom peculiar to Africa or Africans.

Agraphia(n.) The absence or loss of the power of expressing ideas by written signs. It is one form of aphasia.

Agraphic(a.) Characterized by agraphia.

Agrostographic(a.) Alt. of Agrostographical

Agrostographical(a.) Pertaining to agrostography.

Agrostography(n.) A description of the grasses.

Air(n.) The fluid which we breathe, and which surrounds the earth; the atmosphere. It is invisible, inodorous, insipid, transparent, compressible, elastic, and ponderable.

Air(n.) A particular state of the atmosphere, as respects heat, cold, moisture, etc., or as affecting the sensations; as, a smoky air, a damp air, the morning air, etc.

Air(n.) The representation or reproduction of the effect of the atmospheric medium through which every object in nature is viewed.

Air bladder() An air sac, sometimes double or variously lobed, in the visceral cavity of many fishes. It originates in the same way as the lungs of air-breathing vertebrates, and in the adult may retain a tubular connection with the pharynx or esophagus.

Air plant() A plant deriving its sustenance from the air alone; an aerophyte.

Arrangement(n.) A piece so adapted; a transcription; as, a pianoforte arrangement of Beethoven's symphonies; an orchestral arrangement of a song, an opera, or the like.

Arrest(v. t.) Any seizure by power, physical or moral.

Arrhaphostic(a.) Seamless.

Atramentarious(a.) Like ink; suitable for making ink. Sulphate of iron (copperas, green vitriol) is called atramentarious, as being used in making ink.

Atrophic(a.) Relating to atrophy.

Atrophied(p. a.) Affected with atrophy, as a tissue or organ; arrested in development at a very early stage; rudimentary.

Atrophy(n.) A wasting away from want of nourishment; diminution in bulk or slow emaciation of the body or of any part.

Atrophied(p. p.) of Atrophy

Atrophy(v. t.) To cause to waste away or become abortive; to starve or weaken.

Atrophy(v. i.) To waste away; to dwindle.

Aurelia(n.) A genus of jellyfishes. See Discophora.

Auriga(n.) The Charioteer, or Wagoner, a constellation in the northern hemisphere, situated between Perseus and Gemini. It contains the bright star Capella.

Aurigraphy(n.) The art of writing with or in gold.

Aurin(n.) A red coloring matter derived from phenol; -- called also, in commerce, yellow corallin.

Auriphrygiate(a.) Embroidered or decorated with gold.

Aurocephalous(a.) Having a gold-colored head.

Bar(n.) The railing that incloses the place which counsel occupy in courts of justice. Hence, the phrase at the bar of the court signifies in open court.

Barbet(n.) A larva that feeds on aphides.

Baric(a.) Of or pertaining to weight, esp. to the weight or pressure of the atmosphere as measured by the barometer.

Barite(n.) Native sulphate of barium, a mineral occurring in transparent, colorless, white to yellow crystals (generally tabular), also in granular form, and in compact massive forms resembling marble. It has a high specific gravity, and hence is often called heavy spar. It is a common mineral in metallic veins.

Barograph(n.) An instrument for recording automatically the variations of atmospheric pressure.

Barometer(n.) An instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of the probable changes of weather, or for ascertaining the height of any ascent.

Barometrograph(n.) A form of barometer so constructed as to inscribe of itself upon paper a record of the variations of atmospheric pressure.

Baroscope(n.) Any instrument showing the changes in the weight of the atmosphere; also, less appropriately, any instrument that indicates -or foreshadows changes of the weather, as a deep vial of liquid holding in suspension some substance which rises and falls with atmospheric changes.

Barracouata(n.) A voracious pikelike, marine fish, of the genus Sphyraena, sometimes used as food.

Barwood(n.) A red wood of a leguminous tree (Baphia nitida), from Angola and the Gaboon in Africa. It is used as a dyewood, and also for ramrods, violin bows and turner's work.

Baryphony(n.) Difficulty of speech.

Barytes(n.) Barium sulphate, generally called heavy spar or barite. See Barite.

Berkeleian(a.) Of or relating to Bishop Berkeley or his system of idealism; as, Berkeleian philosophy.

Berlin(n.) Fine worsted for fancy-work; zephyr worsted; -- called also Berlin wool.

Beroe(n.) A small, oval, transparent jellyfish, belonging to the Ctenophora.

Berthierite(n.) A double sulphide of antimony and iron, of a dark steel-gray color.

Bird's-eye(n.) A plant with a small bright flower, as the Adonis or pheasant's eye, the mealy primrose (Primula farinosa), and species of Veronica, Geranium, etc.

Birectangular(a.) Containing or having two right angles; as, a birectangular spherical triangle.

Birk(n.) A small European minnow (Leuciscus phoxinus).

Borage(n.) A mucilaginous plant of the genus Borago (B. officinalis), which is used, esp. in France, as a demulcent and diaphoretic.

Borneol(n.) A rare variety of camphor, C10H17.OH, resembling ordinary camphor, from which it can be produced by reduction. It is said to occur in the camphor tree of Borneo and Sumatra (Dryobalanops camphora), but the natural borneol is rarely found in European or American commerce, being in great request by the Chinese. Called also Borneo camphor, Malay camphor, and camphol.

Bornite(n.) A valuable ore of copper, containing copper, iron, and sulphur; -- also called purple copper ore (or erubescite), in allusion to the colors shown upon the slightly tarnished surface.

Car(n.) A chariot of war or of triumph; a vehicle of splendor, dignity, or solemnity.

Carbanil(n.) A mobile liquid, CO.N.C6H5, of pungent odor. It is the phenyl salt of isocyanic acid.

Carbolic(a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid derived from coal tar and other sources; as, carbolic acid (called also phenic acid, and phenol). See Phenol.

Carbon(n.) An elementary substance, not metallic in its nature, which is present in all organic compounds. Atomic weight 11.97. Symbol C. it is combustible, and forms the base of lampblack and charcoal, and enters largely into mineral coals. In its pure crystallized state it constitutes the diamond, the hardest of known substances, occuring in monometric crystals like the octahedron, etc. Another modification is graphite, or blacklead, and in this it is soft

Carboy(n.) A large, globular glass bottle, esp. one of green glass, inclosed in basket work or in a box, for protection; -- used commonly for carrying corrosive liquids; as sulphuric acid, etc.

Carbuncle(n.) A beautiful gem of a deep red color (with a mixture of scarlet) called by the Greeks anthrax; found in the East Indies. When held up to the sun, it loses its deep tinge, and becomes of the color of burning coal. The name belongs for the most part to ruby sapphire, though it has been also given to red spinel and garnet.

Cardia(n.) The anterior or cardiac orifice of the stomach, where the esophagus enters it.

Cardiagraph(n.) See Cardiograph.

Cardiograph(n.) An instrument which, when placed in contact with the chest, will register graphically the comparative duration and intensity of the heart's movements.

Cardiographic(a.) Of or pertaining to, or produced by, a cardiograph.

Cardiosphygmograph(n.) A combination of cardiograph and sphygmograph.

Cariama(n.) A large, long-legged South American bird (Dicholophus cristatus) which preys upon snakes, etc. See Seriema.

Carmine(n.) The essential coloring principle of cochineal, extracted as a purple-red amorphous mass. It is a glucoside and possesses acid properties; -- hence called also carminic acid.

Carmot(n.) The matter of which the philosopher's stone was believed to be composed.

Carnation(n.) A species of Dianthus (D. Caryophyllus) or pink, having very beautiful flowers of various colors, esp. white and usually a rich, spicy scent.

Carpellum(n.) A simple pistil or single-celled ovary or seed vessel, or one of the parts of a compound pistil, ovary, or seed vessel. See Illust of Carpaphore.

Carphology(n.) See Floccillation.

Carpophagous(a.) Living on fruits; fruit-consuming.

Carpophore(n.) A slender prolongation of the receptacle as an axis between the carpels, as in Geranium and many umbelliferous plants.

Carpophyll(n.) A leaf converted into a fruit or a constituent portion of a fruit; a carpel. [See Illust. of Gymnospermous.]

Carpophyte(n.) A flowerless plant which forms a true fruit as the result of fertilization, as the red seaweeds, the Ascomycetes, etc.

Carry(v. t.) To bear or uphold successfully through conflict, as a leader or principle; hence, to succeed in, as in a contest; to bring to a successful issue; to win; as, to carry an election.

Carte de visite() A photographic picture of the size formerly in use for a visiting card.

Cartesian(a.) Of or pertaining to the French philosopher Rene Descartes, or his philosophy.

Cartesianism(n.) The philosophy of Descartes.

Cartographer(n.) One who makes charts or maps.

Cartographic(a.) Alt. of Cartographical

Cartographical(a.) Of or pertaining to cartography.

Cartographically(adv.) By cartography.

Cartography(n.) The art or business of forming charts or maps.

Cartoon(n.) A design or study drawn of the full size, to serve as a model for transferring or copying; -- used in the making of mosaics, tapestries, fresco pantings and the like; as, the cartoons of Raphael.

Caryophyllaceous(a.) Having corollas of five petals with long claws inclosed in a tubular, calyx, as the pink

Caryophyllaceous(a.) Belonging to the family of which the pink and the carnation are the types.

Caryophyllin(n.) A tasteless and odorless crystal.

Caryophyllous(a.) Caryophyllaceous.

Cerasin(n.) A white amorphous substance, the insoluble part of cherry gum; -- called also meta-arabinic acid.

Ceratine(a.) Sophistical.

Ceraunics(n.) That branch of physics which treats of heat and electricity.

Cerebralism(n.) The doctrine or theory that psychical phenomena are functions or products of the brain only.

Cerebrin(n.) A nonphosphorized, nitrogenous substance, obtained from brain and nerve tissue by extraction with boiling alcohol. It is uncertain whether it exists as such in nerve tissue, or is a product of the decomposition of some more complex substance.

Cerebroscopy(n.) Examination of the brain for the diagnosis of disease; esp., the act or process of diagnosticating the condition of the brain by examination of the interior of the eye (as with an ophthalmoscope).

Cerebrose(n.) A sugarlike body obtained by the decomposition of the nitrogenous non-phosphorized principles of the brain.


Cerograph(n.) A writing on wax.

Cerographic(a.) Alt. of Cerographical

Cerographical(a.) Of or pertaining to cerography.

Cerographist(n.) One who practices cerography.

Cerography(n.) The art of making characters or designs in, or with, wax.

Cerography(n.) A method of making stereotype plates from inscribed sheets of wax.

Christcross-row() The alphabet; -- formerly so called, either from the cross usually set before it, or from a superstitious custom, sometimes practiced, of writing it in the form of a cross, by way of a charm.

Christophany(n.) An appearance of Christ, as to his disciples after the crucifixion.

Christ's-thorn(n.) One of several prickly or thorny shrubs found in Palestine, especially the Paliurus aculeatus, Zizyphus Spina-Christi, and Z. vulgaris. The last bears the fruit called jujube, and may be considered to have been the most readily obtainable for the Crown of Thorns.

Chromatography(n.) A treatise on colors

Chromatophore(n.) A contractile cell or vesicle containing liquid pigment and capable of changing its form or size, thus causing changes of color in the translucent skin of such animals as possess them. They are highly developed and numerous in the cephalopods.

Chromatophore(n.) One of the granules of protoplasm, which in mass give color to the part of the plant containing them.

Chromatosphere(n.) A chromosphere.

Chromatype(n.) A colored photographic picture taken upon paper made sensitive with potassium bichromate or some other salt of chromium.

Chromo(n.) A chromolithograph.

Chromogen() Any colored compound, supposed to contain one or more chromophores.

Chromograph(n.) An apparatus by which a number of copies of written matter, maps, plans, etc., can be made; -- called also hectograph.

Chromolithograph(n.) A picture printed in tints and colors by repeated impressions from a series of stones prepared by the lithographic process.

Chromolithographer(n.) One who is engaged in chromolithography.

Chromolithographic(a.) Pertaining to, or made by, chromolithography.

Chromolithography(n.) Lithography adapted to printing in inks of various colors.

Chromophane(n.) A general name for the several coloring matters, red, green, yellow, etc., present in the inner segments in the cones of the retina, held in solution by fats, and slowly decolorized by light; distinct from the photochemical pigments of the rods of the retina.

Chromophore(n.) Any chemical group or residue (as NO2; N2; or O2) which imparts some decided color to the compound of which it is an ingredient.

Chromophotography(n.) The art of producing photographs in colors.

Chromophotolithograph(n.) A photolithograph printed in colors.

Chromosphere(n.) An atmosphere of rare matter, composed principally of incandescent hydrogen gas, surrounding the sun and enveloping the photosphere. Portions of the chromosphere are here and there thrown up into enormous tongues of flame.

Chromospheric(a.) Of or pertaining to the chromosphere.

Chromotype(n.) A sheet printed in colors by any process, as a chromolithograph. See Chromolithograph.

Chromotype(n.) A photographic picture in the natural colors.

Chromule(n.) A general name for coloring matter of plants other than chlorophyll, especially that of petals.

Chronogram(n.) An inscription in which certain numeral letters, made to appear specially conspicuous, on being added together, express a particular date or epoch, as in the motto of a medal struck by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632: ChrIstVs DVX; ergo trIVMphVs.- the capitals of which give, when added as numerals, the sum 1632.

Chronogram(n.) The record or inscription made by a chronograph.

Chronograph(n.) An instrument for measuring or recording intervals of time, upon a revolving drum or strip of paper moved by clockwork. The action of the stylus or pen is controlled by electricity.

Chronograph(n.) Same as Chronogram, 1.

Chronograph(n.) A chronoscope.

Chronographer(n.) One who writes a chronography; a chronologer.

Chronographic(a.) Of or pertaining to a chronograph.

Chronography(n.) A description or record of past time; history.

Chronopher(n.) An instrument signaling the correct time to distant points by electricity.

Chronoscope(n.) An instrument for measuring minute intervals of time; used in determining the velocity of projectiles, the duration of short-lived luminous phenomena, etc.

Chrysarobin(n.) A bitter, yellow substance forming the essential constituent of Goa powder, and yielding chrysophanic acid proper; hence formerly called also chrysphanic acid.

Chryselephantine(a.) Composed of, or adorned with, gold and ivory.

Chrysene(n.) One of the higher aromatic hydrocarbons of coal tar, allied to naphthalene and anthracene. It is a white crystal.

Chrysography(n.) The art of writing in letters of gold.

Chrysography(n.) A writing executed in letters of gold.

Chrysophane(n.) A glucoside extracted from rhubarb as a bitter, yellow, crystal.

Chrysophanic(a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, or resembling, chrysophane.

Chrysotype(n.) A photographic picture taken upon paper prepared by the use of a sensitive salt of iron and developed by the application of chloride of gold.

Circ(n.) An amphitheatrical circle for sports; a circus.

Circle(n.) A round body; a sphere; an orb.

Circumesophagal(a.) Surrounding the esophagus; -- in Zool. said of the nerve commissures and ganglia of arthropods and mollusks.

Circumesophageal(a.) Circumesophagal.

Circumference(n.) The external surface of a sphere, or of any orbicular body.

Circumlocution(n.) The use of many words to express an idea that might be expressed by few; indirect or roundabout language; a periphrase.

Circumlocutional(a.) Relating to, or consisting of, circumlocutions; periphrastic; circuitous.

Circumlocutory(a.) Characterised by circumlocution; periphrastic.


Cirrobranchiata(n. pl.) A division of Mollusca having slender, cirriform appendages near the mouth; the Scaphopoda.

Cirrostomi(n. pl.) The lowest group of vertebrates; -- so called from the cirri around the mouth; the Leptocardia. See Amphioxus.

Coracoid(a.) Pertaining to a bone of the shoulder girdle in most birds, reptiles, and amphibians, which is reduced to a process of the scapula in most mammals.

Corallum(n.) The coral or skeleton of a zoophyte, whether calcareous of horny, simple or compound. See Coral.

Cormophylogeny(n.) The phylogeny of groups or families of individuals.

Cormophytes(n. pl.) Alt. of Cormophyta

Cormophyta(n. pl.) A term proposed by Endlicher to include all plants with an axis containing vascular tissue and with foliage.

Corona(n.) A circle, usually colored, seen in peculiar states of the atmosphere around and close to a luminous body, as the sun or moon.

Corona(n.) A peculiar phase of the aurora borealis, formed by the concentration or convergence of luminous beams around the point in the heavens indicated by the direction of the dipping needle.

Corps(n. sing. & pl.) A body of men; esp., an organized division of the military establishment; as, the marine corps; the corps of topographical engineers; specifically, an army corps.

Corpuscle(n.) A protoplasmic animal cell; esp., such as float free, like blood, lymph, and pus corpuscles; or such as are imbedded in an intercellular matrix, like connective tissue and cartilage corpuscles. See Blood.

Corpuscularian(n.) An adherent of the corpuscular philosophy.

Correlatable(a.) Such as can be correlated; as, correlatable phenomena.

Correlate(v. t.) To put in relation with each other; to connect together by the disclosure of a mutual relation; as, to correlate natural phenomena.

Corruptionist(n.) One who corrupts, or who upholds corruption.

Corundum(n.) The earth alumina, as found native in a crystal.

Coryphaenoid(a.) Belonging to, or like, the genus Coryphaena. See Dolphin.

Coryphee(n.) A ballet dancer.

Coryphene(n.) A fish of the genus Coryphaena. See Dolphin. (2)

Corypheuses(pl. ) of Corypheus

Coryphei(pl. ) of Corypheus

Corypheus(n.) The conductor, chief, or leader of the dramatic chorus; hence, the chief or leader of a party or interest.

Coryphodon(n.) A genus of extinct mammals from the eocene tertiary of Europe and America. Its species varied in size between the tapir and rhinoceros, and were allied to those animals, but had short, plantigrade, five-toed feet, like the elephant.

Coryphodont(a.) Pertaining to, or resembling, the genus Coryphodon.

Curculio(n.) One of a large group of beetles (Rhynchophora) of many genera; -- called also weevils, snout beetles, billbeetles, and billbugs. Many of the species are very destructive, as the plum curculio, the corn, grain, and rice weevils, etc.

Curer(n.) One who cures; a healer; a physician.

Curiologic(a.) Pertaining to a rude kind of hieroglyphics, in which a thing is represented by its picture instead of by a symbol.

Currant(n.) A small kind of seedless raisin, imported from the Levant, chiefly from Zante and Cephalonia; -- used in cookery.

Curvograph(n.) An arcograph.

Cyrenaic(a.) Pertaining to Cyrenaica, an ancient country of northern Africa, and to Cyrene, its principal city; also, to a school of philosophy founded by Aristippus, a native of Cyrene.

Cyrenian(n.) One of a school of philosophers, established at Cyrene by Aristippus, a disciple of Socrates. Their doctrines were nearly the same as those of the Epicureans.

Darn(v. t.) A colloquial euphemism for Damn.

Dermatography(n.) An anatomical description of, or treatise on, the skin.

Dermatophyte(n.) A vegetable parasite, infesting the skin.

Dermophyte(n.) A dermatophyte.

Derotremata(n. pl.) The tribe of aquatic Amphibia which includes Amphiuma, Menopoma, etc. They have permanent gill openings, but no external gills; -- called also Cryptobranchiata.

Dirige(n.) A service for the dead, in the Roman Catholic Church, being the first antiphon of Matins for the dead, of which Dirige is the first word; a dirge.

Dorado(n.) A southern constellation, within which is the south pole of the ecliptic; -- called also sometimes Xiphias, or the Swordfish.

Dorado(n.) A large, oceanic fish of the genus Coryphaena.

Doricism(n.) A Doric phrase or idiom.

Dorism(n.) A Doric phrase or idiom.

Doryphora(n.) A genus of plant-eating beetles, including the potato beetle. See Potato beetle.

Doryphoros(n.) A spear bearer; a statue of a man holding a spear or in the attitude of a spear bearer. Several important sculptures of this subject existed in antiquity, copies of which remain to us.

Durene(n.) A colorless, crystal.

Duress(n.) The state of compulsion or necessity in which a person is influenced, whether by the unlawful restrain of his liberty or by actual or threatened physical violence, to incur a civil liability or to commit an offense.

Earthpea(n.) A species of pea (Amphicarpaea monoica). It is a climbing leguminous plant, with hairy underground pods.

Earthquake(n.) A shaking, trembling, or concussion of the earth, due to subterranean causes, often accompanied by a rumbling noise. The wave of shock sometimes traverses half a hemisphere, destroying cities and many thousand lives; -- called also earthdin, earthquave, and earthshock.

Earwig(n.) In America, any small chilopodous myriapod, esp. of the genus Geophilus.

Edriophthalma(n. pl.) A group of Crustacea in which the eyes are without stalks; the Arthrostraca.

Edriophthalmous(a.) Pertaining to the Edriophthalma.

Egranulose(a.) Having no granules, as chlorophyll in certain conditions.

Eureka() The exclamation attributed to Archimedes, who is said to have cried out "Eureka! eureka!" (I have found it! I have found it!), upon suddenly discovering a method of finding out how much the gold of King Hiero's crown had been alloyed. Hence, an expression of triumph concerning a discovery.

Euryale(n.) A genus of ophiurans with much-branched arms.

Euryalida(n. pl.) A tribe of Ophiuroidea, including the genera Euryale, Astrophyton, etc. They generally have the arms branched. See Astrophyton.

Farse(n.) An addition to, or a paraphrase of, some part of the Latin service in the vernacular; -- common in English before the Reformation.

Fer-de-lance(n.) A large, venomous serpent (Trigonocephalus lanceolatus) of Brazil and the West Indies. It is allied to the rattlesnake, but has no rattle.

Fermacy(n.) Medicine; pharmacy.

Fern(n.) An order of cryptogamous plants, the Filices, which have their fructification on the back of the fronds or leaves. They are usually found in humid soil, sometimes grow epiphytically on trees, and in tropical climates often attain a gigantic size.

Ferretto(n.) Copper sulphide, used to color glass.

Ferrotype(n.) A photographic picture taken on an iron plate by a collodion process; -- familiarly called tintype.

Ferrous(a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, iron; -- especially used of compounds of iron in which the iron has its lower valence; as, ferrous sulphate.

Fertilizer(n.) That which renders fertile; a general name for commercial manures, as guano, phosphate of lime, etc.

Fireback(n.) One of several species of pheasants of the genus Euplocamus, having the lower back a bright, fiery red. They inhabit Southern Asia and the East Indies.

Fire beetle() A very brilliantly luminous beetle (Pyrophorus noctilucus), one of the elaters, found in Central and South America; -- called also cucujo. The name is also applied to other species. See Firefly.

Firework(n.) A device for producing a striking display of light, or a figure or figures in plain or colored fire, by the combustion of materials that burn in some peculiar manner, as gunpowder, sulphur, metallic filings, and various salts. The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube filled with the combustible material. A number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make, when kindled, a great variety of figures in fire, often variously colored.

Firmament(v. & a.) The orb of the fixed stars; the most rmote of the celestial spheres.

Foraminifera(n. pl.) An extensive order of rhizopods which generally have a chambered calcareous shell formed by several united zooids. Many of them have perforated walls, whence the name. Some species are covered with sand. See Rhizophoda.

Force(n.) Any action between two bodies which changes, or tends to change, their relative condition as to rest or motion; or, more generally, which changes, or tends to change, any physical relation between them, whether mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, magnetic, or of any other kind; as, the force of gravity; cohesive force; centrifugal force.

Force(n.) To constrain to do or to forbear, by the exertion of a power not resistible; to compel by physical, moral, or intellectual means; to coerce; as, masters force slaves to labor.

Force(n.) To exert to the utmost; to urge; hence, to strain; to urge to excessive, unnatural, or untimely action; to produce by unnatural effort; as, to force a consient or metaphor; to force a laugh; to force fruits.

Forebrain(n.) The anterior of the three principal divisions of the brain, including the prosencephalon and thalamencephalon. Sometimes restricted to the prosencephalon only. See Brain.

Foretell(v. t.) To predict; to tell before occurence; to prophesy; to foreshow.

Forge(v. t.) To move heavily and slowly, as a ship after the sails are furled; to work one's way, as one ship in outsailing another; -- used especially in the phrase to forge ahead.

Form(n.) A shape; an image; a phantom.

Form(n.) The combination of planes included under a general crystallographic symbol. It is not necessarily a closed solid.

Fortifier(n.) One who, or that which, fortifies, strengthens, supports, or upholds.

Fortuitous(a.) Happening independently of human will or means of foresight; resulting from unavoidable physical causes.

Furfuran(n.) A colorless, oily substance, C4H4O, obtained by distilling certain organic substances, as pine wood, salts of pyromucic acid, etc.; -- called also tetraphenol.

Fury(n.) pl. (Greek Myth.) The avenging deities, Tisiphone, Alecto, and Megaera; the Erinyes or Eumenides.

Furzeling(n.) An English warbler (Melizophilus provincialis); -- called also furze wren, and Dartford warbler.

Garancin(n.) An extract of madder by sulphuric acid. It consists essentially of alizarin.

Garnierite(n.) An amorphous mineral of apple-green color; a hydrous silicate of nickel and magnesia. It is an important ore of nickel.

Gerontes(n. pl.) Magistrates in Sparta, who with the ephori and kings, constituted the supreme civil authority.

Gordius(n.) A genus of long, slender, nematoid worms, parasitic in insects until near maturity, when they leave the insect, and live in water, in which they deposit their eggs; -- called also hair eel, hairworm, and hair snake, from the absurd, but common and widely diffused, notion that they are metamorphosed horsehairs.

Gyrencephala(n. pl.) The higher orders of Mammalia, in which the cerebrum is convoluted.

Gyrostatics(n.) The doctrine or theory of the gyrostat, or of the phenomena of rotating bodies.

Hare's-tail(n.) A kind of grass (Eriophorum vaginatum). See Cotton grass, under Cotton.

Harmonica(n.) A musical instrument, consisting of a series of hemispherical glasses which, by touching the edges with the dampened finger, give forth the tones.

Harmonious(a.) Vocally or musically concordant; agreeably consonant; symphonious.

Harmoniphon(n.) An obsolete wind instrument with a keyboard, in which the sound, which resembled the oboe, was produced by the vibration of thin metallic plates, acted upon by blowing through a tube.

Harping(a.) Pertaining to the harp; as, harping symphonies.

Hartbeest(n.) A large South African antelope (Alcelaphus caama), formerly much more abundant than it is now. The face and legs are marked with black, the rump with white.

Herapathite(n.) The sulphate of iodoquinine, a substance crystallizing in thin plates remarkable for their effects in polarizing light.

Hercogamous(a.) Not capable of self-fertilization; -- said of hermaphrodite flowers in which some structural obstacle forbids autogamy.

Hercules(n.) A constellation in the northern hemisphere, near Lyra.

Herd(n.) A number of beasts assembled together; as, a herd of horses, oxen, cattle, camels, elephants, deer, or swine; a particular stock or family of cattle.

Herd(n.) One who herds or assembles domestic animals; a herdsman; -- much used in composition; as, a shepherd; a goatherd, and the like.

Herd(v. i.) To act as a herdsman or a shepherd.

Herderite(n.) A rare fluophosphate of glucina, in small white crystals.

Herdess(n.) A shepherdess; a female herder.

Heredity(n.) Hereditary transmission of the physical and psychical qualities of parents to their offspring; the biological law by which living beings tend to repeat their characteristics in their descendants. See Pangenesis.

Heresiographer(n.) One who writes on heresies.

Heresiography(n.) A treatise on heresy.

Heresy(n.) An opinion held in opposition to the established or commonly received doctrine, and tending to promote a division or party, as in politics, literature, philosophy, etc.; -- usually, but not necessarily, said in reproach.

Hermaphrodeity(n.) Hermaphrodism.

Hermaphrodism(n.) See Hermaphroditism.

Hermaphrodite(n.) An individual which has the attributes of both male and female, or which unites in itself the two sexes; an animal or plant having the parts of generation of both sexes, as when a flower contains both the stamens and pistil within the same calyx, or on the same receptacle. In some cases reproduction may take place without the union of the distinct individuals. In the animal kingdom true hermaphrodites are found only among the invertebrates.

Hermaphrodite(a.) Including, or being of, both sexes; as, an hermaphrodite animal or flower.

Hermaphroditic(a.) Alt. of Hermaphroditical

Hermaphroditical(a.) Partaking of the characteristics of both sexes; characterized by hermaphroditism.

Hermaphroditism(n.) The union of the two sexes in the same individual, or the combination of some of their characteristics or organs in one individual.

Hermeneutical(a.) Unfolding the signification; of or pertaining to interpretation; exegetical; explanatory; as, hermeneutic theology, or the art of expounding the Scriptures; a hermeneutic phrase.

Hermetical(a.) Of, pertaining to, or taught by, Hermes Trismegistus; as, hermetic philosophy. Hence: Alchemical; chemic.

Hermetical(a.) Of or pertaining to the system which explains the causes of diseases and the operations of medicine on the principles of the hermetic philosophy, and which made much use, as a remedy, of an alkali and an acid; as, hermetic medicine.

Herself(pron.) An emphasized form of the third person feminine pronoun; -- used as a subject with she; as, she herself will bear the blame; also used alone in the predicate, either in the nominative or objective case; as, it is herself; she blames herself.

Horary(a.) Occurring once an hour; continuing an hour; hourly; ephemeral.

Horn(n.) The tough, fibrous material of which true horns are composed, being, in the Ox family, chiefly albuminous, with some phosphate of lime; also, any similar substance, as that which forms the hoof crust of horses, sheep, and cattle; as, a spoon of horn.

Hornblende(n.) The common black, or dark green or brown, variety of amphibole. (See Amphibole.) It belongs to the aluminous division of the species, and is also characterized by its containing considerable iron. Also used as a general term to include the whole species.

Hornbook(n.) The first book for children, or that from which in former times they learned their letters and rudiments; -- so called because a sheet of horn covered the small, thin board of oak, or the slip of paper, on which the alphabet, digits, and often the Lord's Prayer, were written or printed; a primer.

Hornwort(n.) An aquatic plant (Ceratophyllum), with finely divided leaves.

Horography(n.) An account of the hours.

Horography(n.) The art of constructing instruments for making the hours, as clocks, watches, and dials.

Horologiographer(n.) A maker of clocks, watches, or dials.

Horologiographic(a.) Of or pertaining to horologiography.

Horologiography(n.) An account of instruments that show the hour.

Horologiography(n.) The art of constructing clocks or dials; horography.

Horoscope(n.) The planisphere invented by Jean Paduanus.

Horse-chestnut(n.) The tree itself, which was brought from Constantinople in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and is now common in the temperate zones of both hemispheres. The native American species are called buckeyes.

Horse-drench(n.) A dose of physic for a horse.

Hurra(interj.) A word used as a shout of joy, triumph, applause, encouragement, or welcome.

Hurt(v. t.) To cause physical pain to; to do bodily harm to; to wound or bruise painfully.

Irregular(a.) Not regular; not conforming to a law, method, or usage recognized as the general rule; not according to common form; not conformable to nature, to the rules of moral rectitude, or to established principles; not normal; unnatural; immethodical; unsymmetrical; erratic; no straight; not uniform; as, an irregular Jar(n.) A turn. [Only in phrase.]

Jarosite(n.) An ocher-yellow mineral occurring on minute rhombohedral crystals. It is a hydrous sulphate of iron and potash.

Jorden(n.) A pot or vessel with a large neck, formerly used by physicians and alchemists.

Jurisdiction(a.) Sphere of authority; the limits within which any particular power may be exercised, or within which a government or a court has authority.

Karpholite(n.) A fibrous mineral occurring in tufts of a straw-yellow color. It is a hydrous silicate of alumina and manganese.

Keramographic(a.) Suitable to be written upon; capable of being written upon, as a slate; -- said especially of a certain kind of globe.

Kerasin(n.) A nitrogenous substance free from phosphorus, supposed to be present in the brain; a body closely related to cerebrin.

Keratin(n.) A nitrogenous substance, or mixture of substances, containing sulphur in a loose state of combination, and forming the chemical basis of epidermal tissues, such as horn, hair, feathers, and the like. It is an insoluble substance, and, unlike elastin, is not dissolved even by gastric or pancreatic juice. By decomposition with sulphuric acid it yields leucin and tyrosin, as does albumin. Called also epidermose.

Keratophyte(n.) A gorgonian coral having a horny axis.

Keraunograph(n.) A figure or picture impressed by lightning upon the human body or elsewhere.

Kerite(n.) A compound in which tar or asphaltum combined with animal or vegetable oils is vulcanized by sulphur, the product closely resembling rubber; -- used principally as an insulating material in telegraphy.

Kyriological(a.) Serving to denote objects by conventional signs or alphabetical characters; as, the original Greek alphabet of sixteen letters was called kyriologic, because it represented the pure elementary sounds. See Curiologic.

Lardacein(n.) A peculiar amyloid substance, colored blue by iodine and sulphuric acid, occurring mainly as an abnormal infiltration into the spleen, liver, etc.

Larkspur(n.) A genus of ranunculaceous plants (Delphinium), having showy flowers, and a spurred calyx. They are natives of the North Temperate zone. The commonest larkspur of the gardens is D. Consolida. The flower of the bee larkspur (D. elatum) has two petals bearded with yellow hairs, and looks not unlike a bee.

Larva(n.) The early, immature form of any animal when more or less of a metamorphosis takes place, before the assumption of the mature shape.

Laryngophony(n.) The sound of the voice as heard through a stethoscope when the latter is placed upon the larynx.

Larynx(n.) The expanded upper end of the windpipe or trachea, connected with the hyoid bone or cartilage. It contains the vocal cords, which produce the voice by their vibrations, when they are stretched and a current of air passes between them. The larynx is connected with the pharynx by an opening, the glottis, which, in mammals, is protected by a lidlike epiglottis.

Lorettine(n.) One of a order of nuns founded in 1812 at Loretto, in Kentucky. The members of the order (called also Sisters of Loretto, or Friends of Mary at the Foot of the Cross) devote themselves to the cause of education and the care of destitute orphans, their labors being chiefly confined to the Western United States.

Lurg(n.) A large marine annelid (Nephthys caeca), inhabiting the sandy shores of Europe and America. It is whitish, with a pearly luster, and grows to the length of eight or ten inches.

Lyra(n.) A northern constellation, the Harp, containing a white star of the first magnitude, called Alpha Lyrae, or Vega.

Lyre bird() Any one of two or three species of Australian birds of the genus Menura. The male is remarkable for having the sixteen tail feathers very long and, when spread, arranged in the form of a lyre. The common lyre bird (Menura superba), inhabiting New South Wales, is about the size of a grouse. Its general color is brown, with rufous color on the throat, wings, tail coverts and tail. Called also lyre pheasant and lyre-tail.

Lyrie(n.) A European fish (Peristethus cataphractum), having the body covered with bony plates, and having three spines projecting in front of the nose; -- called also noble, pluck, pogge, sea poacher, and armed bullhead.

Marasmus(n.) A wasting of flesh without fever or apparent disease; a kind of consumption; atrophy; phthisis.

Marble(n.) A massive, compact limestone; a variety of calcite, capable of being polished and used for architectural and ornamental purposes. The color varies from white to black, being sometimes yellow, red, and green, and frequently beautifully veined or clouded. The name is also given to other rocks of like use and appearance, as serpentine or verd antique marble, and less properly to polished porphyry, granite, etc.

Marcasite(n.) A sulphide of iron resembling pyrite or common iron pyrites in composition, but differing in form; white iron pyrites.

Marcato(a.) In a marked emphatic manner; -- used adverbially as a direction.

Marmorosis(n.) The metamorphism of limestone, that is, its conversion into marble.

Marmose(n.) A species of small opossum (Didelphus murina) ranging from Mexico to Brazil.

Marmot(n.) Any one of several species of ground squirrels or gophers of the genus Spermophilus; also, the prairie dog.

Marram(n.) A coarse grass found on sandy beaches (Ammophila arundinacea). See Beach grass, under Beach.

Martingal(n.) A lower stay of rope or chain for the jib boom or flying jib boom, fastened to, or reeved through, the dolphin striker. Also, the dolphin striker itself.

Martingal(n.) The act of doubling, at each stake, that which has been lost on the preceding stake; also, the sum so risked; -- metaphorically derived from the bifurcation of the martingale of a harness.

Martite(n.) Iron sesquioxide in isometric form, probably a pseudomorph after magnetite.

Martyr(n.) One who, by his death, bears witness to the truth of the gospel; one who is put to death for his religion; as, Stephen was the first Christian martyr.

Mercaptan(n.) Any one of series of compounds, hydrosulphides of alcohol radicals, in composition resembling the alcohols, but containing sulphur in place of oxygen, and hence called also the sulphur alcohols. In general, they are colorless liquids having a strong, repulsive, garlic odor. The name is specifically applied to ethyl mercaptan, C2H5SH. So called from its avidity for mercury, and other metals.

Mercaptide(n.) A compound of mercaptan formed by replacing its sulphur hydrogen by a metal; as, potassium mercaptide, C2H5SK.

Mercurialist(n.) A physician who uses much mercury, in any of its forms, in his practice.

Merenchyma(n.) Tissue composed of spheroidal cells.

Meridian(a.) A great circle of the sphere passing through the poles of the heavens and the zenith of a given place. It is crossed by the sun at midday.

Mermaid(n.) A fabled marine creature, typically represented as having the upper part like that of a woman, and the lower like a fish; a sea nymph, sea woman, or woman fish.

Meros(n.) The plain surface between the channels of a triglyph.

Mirabilite(n.) Native sodium sulphate; Glauber's salt.

Mora(n.) A leguminous tree of Guiana and Trinidad (Dimorphandra excelsa); also, its timber, used in shipbuilding and making furniture.

Moral(a.) Acting upon or through one's moral nature or sense of right, or suited to act in such a manner; as, a moral arguments; moral considerations. Sometimes opposed to material and physical; as, moral pressure or support.

Morally(adv.) In moral qualities; in disposition and character; as, one who physically and morally endures hardships.

Moreen(n.) A thick woolen fabric, watered or with embossed figures; -- used in upholstery, for curtains, etc.

Mormon(n.) One of a sect in the United States, followers of Joseph Smith, who professed to have found an addition to the Bible, engraved on golden plates, called the Book of Mormon, first published in 1830. The Mormons believe in polygamy, and their hierarchy of apostles, etc., has control of civil and religious matters.

Moroshop(n.) A philosophical or learned fool.

Morphean(a.) Of or relating to Morpheus, to dreams, or to sleep.

Morpheus(n.) The god of dreams.

Morphew(n.) A scurfy eruption.

Morphew(v. t.) To cover with a morphew.

Morphia(n.) Morphine.

Morphine(n.) A bitter white crystal.

Morphinism(n.) A morbid condition produced by the excessive or prolonged use of morphine.

Morpho(n.) Any one of numerous species of large, handsome, tropical American butterflies, of the genus Morpho. They are noted for the very brilliant metallic luster and bright colors (often blue) of the upper surface of the wings. The lower surface is usually brown or gray, with eyelike spots.

Morphogeny(n.) History of the evolution of forms; that part of ontogeny that deals with the germ history of forms; -- distinguished from physiogeny.

Morphologic(a.) Alt. of Morphological

Morphological(a.) Of, pertaining to, or according to, the principles of morphology.

Morphologist(n.) One who is versed in the science of morphology.

Morphology(n.) That branch of biology which deals with the structure of animals and plants, treating of the forms of organs and describing their varieties, homologies, and metamorphoses. See Tectology, and Promorphology.

Morphon(n.) A morphological individual, characterized by definiteness of form bion, a physiological individual. See Tectology.

Morphonomy(n.) The laws of organic formation.

Morphophyly(n.) The tribal history of forms; that part of phylogeny which treats of the tribal history of forms, in distinction from the tribal history of functions.

Morphosis(n.) The order or mode of development of an organ or part.

Morphotic(a.) Connected with, or becoming an integral part of, a living unit or of the morphological framework; as, morphotic, or tissue, proteids.

Morse alphabet() A telegraphic alphabet in very general use, inventing by Samuel F.B.Morse, the inventor of Morse's telegraph. The letters are represented by dots and dashes impressed or printed on paper, as, .- (A), - . . . (B), -.. (D), . (E), .. (O), . . . (R), -- (T), etc., or by sounds, flashes of light, etc., with greater or less intervals between them.

Morula(n.) The sphere or globular mass of cells (blastomeres), formed by the clevage of the ovum or egg in the first stages of its development; -- called also mulberry mass, segmentation sphere, and blastosphere. See Segmentation.

Murphy(n.) A potato.

Murrayin(n.) A glucoside found in the flowers of a plant (Murraya exotica) of South Asia, and extracted as a white amorphous slightly bitter substance.

Murrelet(n.) One of several species of sea birds of the genera Synthliboramphus and Brachyramphus, inhabiting the North Pacific. They are closely related to the murres.

Myriophyllous(a.) Having an indefinitely great or countless number of leaves.

Narcotic(n.) A drug which, in medicinal doses, generally allays morbid susceptibility, relieves pain, and produces sleep; but which, in poisonous doses, produces stupor, coma, or convulsions, and, when given in sufficient quantity, causes death. The best examples are opium (with morphine), belladonna (with atropine), and conium.

Narcotine(n.) An alkaloid found in opium, and extracted as a white crystal.

Nares(n. pl.) The nostrils or nasal openings, -- the anterior nares being the external or proper nostrils, and the posterior nares, the openings of the nasal cavities into the mouth or pharynx.

Narrow(superl.) Formed (as a vowel) by a close position of some part of the tongue in relation to the palate; or (according to Bell) by a tense condition of the pharynx; -- distinguished from wide; as e (eve) and / (f/d), etc., from i (ill) and / (f/t), etc. See Guide to Pronunciation, / 13.

Narrow(v. t.) To contract the reach or sphere of; to make less liberal or more selfish; to limit; to confine; to restrict; as, to narrow one's views or knowledge; to narrow a question in discussion.

Nereid(n.) A sea nymph, one of the daughters of Nereus, who were attendants upon Neptune, and were represented as riding on sea horses, sometimes with the human form entire, and sometimes with the tail of a fish.

Nereis(n.) A genus, including numerous species, of marine chaetopod annelids, having a well-formed head, with two pairs of eyes, antennae, four pairs of tentacles, and a protrusile pharynx, armed with a pair of hooked jaws.

Normal(a.) Denoting certain hypothetical compounds, as acids from which the real acids are obtained by dehydration; thus, normal sulphuric acid and normal nitric acid are respectively S(OH)6, and N(OH)5.

Aerophone(n.) A form of combined speaking and ear trumpet.

Aerophone(n.) An instrument, proposed by Edison, for greatly intensifying speech. It consists of a phonograph diaphragm so arranged that its action opens and closes valves, producing synchronous air blasts sufficient to operate a larger diaphragm with greater amplitude of vibration.

Air hole() A local region in the atmosphere having a downward movement and offering less than normal support for the sustaining surfaces of a flying machine.

Atrium(n.) A cavity, entrance, or passage; as, the atrium, or atrial cavity, in the body wall of the amphioxus; an atrium of the infundibula of the lungs, etc.

Barocyclonometer(n.) An aneroid barometer for use with accompanying graphic diagrams and printed directions designed to aid mariners to interpret the indications of the barometer so as to determine the existence of a violent storm at a distance of several hundred miles.

Barogram(n.) A tracing, usually made by the barograph, showing graphically the variations of atmospheric pressure for a given time.

Barothermograph(n.) An instrument for recording both pressure and temperature, as of the atmosphere.

Barracuda(n.) Any of several voracious pikelike marine fishes allied to the gray mullets, constituting the genus Sphyraena and family Sphyraenidae. The great barracuda (S. barracuda) of the West Indies, Florida, etc., is often six feet or more long, and as dangerous as a shark. In Cuba its flesh is reputed to be poisonous. S. Argentea of the Pacific coast and S. sphyraena of Europe are smaller species, and are used as food.

Barysphere(n.) The heavy interior portion of the earth, within the lithosphere.

Bertillon system() A system for the identification of persons by a physical description based upon anthropometric measurements, notes of markings, deformities, color

Carbonite(n.) An explosive composed of nitrobenzene, saltpeter, sulphur, and kieselguhr.

Carbon transmitter() A telephone transmitter in which a carbon contact is used.

Cardiogram(n.) The curve or tracing made by a cardiograph.

Cardiography(n.) Description of the heart.

Cardiography(n.) Examination by the cardiograph.

Cartogram(n.) A map showing geographically, by shades or curves, statistics of various kinds; a statistical map.

Cerulein(n.) A fast dyestuff, C20H8O6, made by heating gallein with strong sulphuric acid. It dyes mordanted fabrics green.

Christian Seneca() Joseph Hall (1574 -- 1656), Bishop of Norwich, a divine eminent as a moralist.

Chromatin(n.) The deeply staining substance of the nucleus and chromosomes of cells, now supposed to be the physical basis of inheritance, and generally regarded as the same substance as the hypothetical idioplasm or germ plasm.

Chromophotograph(n.) A picture made by any of the processes for reproducing photographs in colors.

Chronophotograph(n.) One of a set of photographs of a moving object, taken for the purpose of recording and exhibiting successive phases of the motion.

Earth(n.) The connection of any part an electric conductor with the ground

Ferranti phenomenon() An increase in the ratio of transformation of an alternating current converter, accompanied by other changes in electrical conditions, occurring when the secondary of the converter is connected with a condenser of moderate capacity; -- so called because first observed in connection with the Ferranti cables in London.

Germ(n.) The germ cells, collectively, as distinguished from the somatic cells, or soma. Germ is often used in place of germinal to form phrases; as, germ area, germ disc, germ membrane, germ nucleus, germ sac, etc.

Hard steel() Steel hardened by the addition of other elements, as manganese, phosphorus, or (usually) carbon.

Hertzian(a.) Of or pert. to the German physicist Heinrich Hertz.

Laryngograph(n.) An instrument for recording the larynx movements in speech.

Lorettine(n.) One of an order of nuns founded in 1812 at Loretto, in Kentucky. The members of the order (called also Sisters of Loretto, or Friends of Mary at the Foot of the Cross) devote themselves to the cause of education and the care of destitute orphans, their labors being chiefly confined to the western United States.

Marconi(a.) Designating, or pert. to, Marconi's system of wireless telegraphy; as, Marconi aerial, coherer, station, system, etc.

Marconigraph(n.) The apparatus used in Marconi wireless telegraphy.

Marconism(n.) The theory or practice of Marconi's wireless telegraph system.

Marconi system() A system or wireless telegraphy developed by G. Marconi, an Italian physicist, in which Hertzian waves are used in transmission and a coherer is used as the receiving instrument.

Margaryize(v. t.) To impregnate (wood) with a preservative solution of copper sulphate (often called Mar"ga*ry's flu"id [-r/z]).

Marinism(n.) A bombastic literary style marked by the use of metaphors and antitheses characteristic of the Italian poet Giambattista Marini (1569-1625).

Mero(n.) Any of several large groupers of warm seas, esp. the guasa (Epinephelus guaza), the red grouper (E. morio), the black grouper (E. nigritas), distinguished as Me"ro de lo al"to (/), and a species called also rock hind, distinguished as Me"ro ca*brol"la (/).

Morse code() The telegraphic code, consisting of dots, dashes, and spaces, invented by Samuel B. Morse. The Alphabetic code which is in use in North America is given below. In length, or duration, one dash is theoretically equal to three dots; the space between the elements of a letter is equal to one dot; the interval in spaced letters, as O . ., is equal to three dots. There are no spaces in any letter composed wholly or in part of dashes.

Myrmecophyte(n.) A plant that affords shelter and food to certain species of ants which live in symbiotic relations with it. Special adaptations for this purpose exist; thus, Acacia spadicigera has large hollows thorns, and species of Cecropia have stem cavities.

Para rubber() The caoutchouc obtained from the South American euphorbiaceous tree Hevea brasiliensis, hence called the Para rubber tree, from the Brazilian river and seaport named Para; also, the similar product of other species of Hevea. It is usually exported in flat round cakes, and is a chief variety of commercial India rubber.

Parchmentize(v. t.) To convert to a parchmentlike substance, esp. by sulphuric acid.

Parlor match() A friction match that contains little or no sulphur.

Parnassian(n.) One of a school of French poets of the Second Empire (1852-70) who emphasized metrical form and made the little use of emotion as poetic material; -- so called from the name (Parnasse contemporain) of the volume in which their first poems were collected in 1866.

Pyrograph(n.) A production of pyrography.

Pyrogravure(n.) Pyrography; also, a design or picture made by pyrography.

Series(n.) In Engler's system of plant classification, a group of families showing certain structural or morphological relationships. It corresponds to the cohort of some writers, and to the order of many modern systematists.

Serigraph(n.) An autographic device to test the strength of raw silk.

Sprocket(n.) A tooth or projection, as on the periphery of a wheel, shaped so as to engage with a chain.

Stress(v. t.) To subject to phonetic stress; to accent.

Stress(v. t.) To place emphasis on; to make emphatic; emphasize.

Surface tension() That property, due to molecular forces, which exists in the surface film of all liquids and tends to bring the contained volume into a form having the least superficial area. The thickness of this film, amounting to less than a thousandth of a millimeter, is considered to equal the radius of the sphere of molecular action, that is, the greatest distance at which there is cohesion between two particles.

Term day() A day which is a term (as for payment of rent), or is a day in a term, as of the sitting of a court; esp., one of a series of special days, designated by scientists of different nations or stations, for making synoptic magnetic, meteorological, or other physical observations.

Three-color(a.) Designating, or pert. to, a photomechanical process employing printings in three colors, as red, yellow, and blue.

Torsion indicator() An autographic torsion meter.

Turko-Iranian(a.) Designating, or pert. to, a mixed racial type including the Afghans, and characterized chiefly by stature above mean, fair complexion, dark, or sometimes gray, eyes, brachycephaly, and very long, prominent, and moderately narrow nose.

Variole(n.) A spherule of a variolite.

Verner's law() A statement, propounded by the Danish philologist Karl Verner in 1875, which explains certain apparent exceptions to Grimm's law by the original position of the accent. Primitive Indo-European k, t, p, became first in Teutonic h, th, f, and appear without further change in old Teutonic, if the accent rested on the preceding syllable; but these sounds became voiced and produced g, d, b, if the accent was originally on a different syllable.

Wireless(a.) designating, or pertaining to, a method of telegraphy, telephony, etc., in which the messages, etc., are transmitted through space by electric waves; as, a wireless message.

Wireless(n.) Short for Wireless telegraphy, Wireless telephony, etc.; as, to send a message by wireless.

Wire tapper() One that taps, or cuts in on, telegraph wires and intercepts messages;

Wire tapper() a swindler who pretends to tap wires or otherwise intercept advance telegraphic news for betting.

Word method() A method of teaching reading in which words are first taken as single ideograms and later analyzed into their phonetic and alphabetic elements; -- contrasted with the alphabet and sentence methods.

Ouranographist(n.) See Uranographist.

Ouranography(n.) See Uranography.

Ourselves(pron.) ; sing. Ourself (/). An emphasized form of the pronoun of the first person plural; -- used as a subject, usually with we; also, alone in the predicate, in the nominative or the objective case.

Par(prep.) By; with; -- used frequently in Early English in phrases taken from the French, being sometimes written as a part of the word which it governs; as, par amour, or paramour; par cas, or parcase; par fay, or parfay.

Parablast(n.) A portion of the mesoblast (of peripheral origin) of the developing embryo, the cells of which are especially concerned in forming the first blood and blood vessels.

Paracelsian(a.) Of, pertaining to, or in conformity with, the practice of Paracelsus, a Swiss physician of the 15th century.

Parachute(n.) A web or fold of skin which extends between the legs of certain mammals, as the flying squirrels, colugo, and phalangister.

Paracyanogen(n.) A polymeric modification of cyanogen, obtained as a brown or black amorphous residue by heating mercuric cyanide.

Paradoxure(n.) Any species of Paradoxurus, a genus of Asiatic viverrine mammals allied to the civet, as the musang, and the luwack or palm cat (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). See Musang.

Paragraph(n.) Originally, a marginal mark or note, set in the margin to call attention to something in the text, e. g., a change of subject; now, the character /, commonly used in the text as a reference mark to a footnote, or to indicate the place of a division into sections.

Paragraph(n.) A distinct part of a discourse or writing; any section or subdivision of a writing or chapter which relates to a particular point, whether consisting of one or many sentences. The division is sometimes noted by the mark /, but usually, by beginning the first sentence of the paragraph on a new Paragraph(n.) A brief composition complete in one typographical section or paragraph; an item, remark, or quotation comprised in a few Paragraphed(imp. & p. p.) of Paragraph

Paragraphing(p. pr. & vb. n.) of Paragraph

Paragraph(v. t.) To divide into paragraphs; to mark with the character /.

Paragraph(v. t.) To express in the compass of a paragraph; as, to paragraph an article.

Paragraph(v. t.) To mention in a paragraph or paragraphs

Paragrapher(n.) A writer of paragraphs; a paragraphist.

Paragraphic(a.) Alt. of Paragraphical

Paragraphical(a.) Pertaining to, or consisting of, a paragraph or paragraphs.

Paragraphist(n.) A paragrapher.

Paragraphistical(a.) Of or relating to a paragraphist.

Paragrele(n.) A lightning conductor erected, as in a vineyard, for drawing off the electricity in the atmosphere in order to prevent hailstorms.

Paramere(n.) One of the symmetrical halves of any one of the radii, or spheromeres, of a radiate animal, as a starfish.

Parameter(n.) The ratio of the three crystallographic axes which determines the position of any plane; also, the fundamental axial ratio for a given species.

Paramiographer(n.) A collector or writer of proverbs.

Paramo(n.) A high, bleak plateau or district, with stunted trees, and cold, damp atmosphere, as in the Andes, in South America.

Paramorph(n.) A kind of pseudomorph, in which there has been a change of physical characters without alteration of chemical composition, as the change of aragonite to calcite.

Paramorphism(n.) The change of one mineral species to another, so as to involve a change in physical characters without alteration of chemical composition.

Paramorphous(a.) Relating to paramorphism; exhibiting paramorphism.

Paranaphthalene(n.) Anthracene

Paranymph(n.) A friend of the bridegroom who went with him in his chariot to fetch home the bride.

Paranymph(n.) The bridesmaid who conducted the bride to the bridegroom.

Paranymph(n.) An ally; a supporter or abettor.

Paranymphal(a.) Bridal; nuptial.

Paraph(n.) A flourish made with the pen at the end of a signature. In the Middle Ages, this formed a sort of rude safeguard against forgery.

Paraphed(imp. & p. p.) of Paraph

Paraphing(p. pr. & vb. n.) of Paraph

Paraph(v. t.) To add a paraph to; to sign, esp. with the initials.

Parapherna(n. pl.) The property of a woman which, on her marriage, was not made a part of her dower, but remained her own.

Paraphernal(a.) Of or pertaining to paraphernalia; as, paraphernal property.

Paraphernalia(n. pl.) Something reserved to a wife, over and above her dower, being chiefly apparel and ornaments suited to her degree.

Paraphernalia(n. pl.) Appendages; ornaments; finery; equipments.

Paraphimosis(n.) A condition in which the prepuce, after being retracted behind the glans penis, is constricted there, and can not be brought forward into place again.

Paraphosphoric(a.) Pyrophosphoric.

Paraphragmata(pl. ) of Paraphagma

Paraphagma(n.) One of the outer divisions of an endosternite of Crustacea.

Paraphrase(n.) A restatement of a text, passage, or work, expressing the meaning of the original in another form, generally for the sake of its clearer and fuller exposition; a setting forth the signification of a text in other and ampler terms; a free translation or rendering; -- opposed to metaphrase.

Paraphrased(imp. & p. p.) of Paraphrase

Paraphrasing(p. pr. & vb. n.) of Paraphrase

Paraphrase(v. t.) To express, interpret, or translate with latitude; to give the meaning of a passage in other language.

Paraphrase(v. i.) To make a paraphrase.

Paraphraser(n.) One who paraphrases.

Paraphrasian(n.) A paraphraser.

Paraphrast(n.) A paraphraser.

Paraphrastic(a.) Alt. of Paraphrastical

Paraphrastical(a.) Paraphrasing; of the nature of paraphrase; explaining, or translating in words more clear and ample than those of the author; not literal; free.

Paraphyses(pl. ) of Paraphysis

Paraphysis(n.) A minute jointed filament growing among the archegonia and antheridia of mosses, or with the spore cases, etc., of other flowerless plants.

Parapophyses(pl. ) of Parapophysis

Parapophysis(n.) The ventral transverse, or capitular, process of a vertebra. See Vertebra.

Parasang(n.) A Persian measure of length, which, according to Herodotus and Xenophon, was thirty stadia, or somewhat more than three and a half miles. The measure varied in different times and places, and, as now used, is estimated at from three and a half to four English miles.

Parasita(n. pl.) A division of copepod Crustacea, having a sucking mouth, as the lerneans. They are mostly parasites on fishes. Called also Siphonostomata.

Parasite(n.) One who frequents the tables of the rich, or who lives at another's expense, and earns his welcome by flattery; a hanger-on; a toady; a sycophant.

Parasite(n.) A plant obtaining nourishment immediately from other plants to which it attaches itself, and whose juices it absorbs; -- sometimes, but erroneously, called epiphyte.

Parasitical(a.) Of the nature of a parasite; fawning for food or favors; sycophantic.

Parasphenoid(a.) Near the sphenoid bone; -- applied especially to a bone situated immediately beneath the sphenoid in the base of the skull in many animals.

Parasphenoid(n.) The parasphenoid bone.

Parastichy(n.) A secondary spiral in phyllotaxy, as one of the evident spirals in a pine cone.

Paraxylene(n.) A hydrocarbon of the aromatic series obtained as a colorless liquid by the distillation of camphor with zinc chloride. It is one of the three metamers of xylene. Cf. Metamer, and Xylene.

Parcel(a. & adv.) Part or half; in part; partially. Shak. [Sometimes hyphened with the word following.]

Paregoric(n.) A medicine that mitigates pain; an anodyne; specifically, camphorated tincture of opium; -- called also paregoric elexir.

Parenthesis(n.) A word, phrase, or sentence, by way of comment or explanation, inserted in, or attached to, a sentence which would be grammatically complete without it.


Pargasite(n.) A dark green aluminous variety of amphibole, or hornblende.

Parietic(a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid found in the lichen Parmelia parietina, and called also chrysophanic acid.

Parlance(n.) Conversation; discourse; talk; diction; phrase; as, in legal parlance; in common parlance.

Paronymous(a.) Having a similar sound, but different orthography and different meaning; -- said of certain words, as al/ and awl; hair and hare, etc.

Paroophoron(n.) A small mass of tubules near the ovary in some animals, and corresponding with the parepididymis of the male.

Parovarium(n.) A group of tubules, a remnant of the Wolffian body, often found near the ovary or oviduct; the epoophoron.

Parrot(n.) Any species of Psittacus, Chrysotis, Pionus, and other genera of the family Psittacidae, as distinguished from the parrakeets, macaws, and lories. They have a short rounded or even tail, and often a naked space on the cheeks. The gray parrot, or jako (P. erithacus) of Africa (see Jako), and the species of Amazon, or green, parrots (Chrysotis) of America, are examples. Many species, as cage birds, readily learn to imitate sounds, and to repeat words and phrases.

Parthenogenesis(n.) The production of new individuals from virgin females by means of ova which have the power of developing without the intervention of the male element; the production, without fertilization, of cells capable of germination. It is one of the phenomena of alternate generation. Cf. Heterogamy, and Metagenesis.

Percomorphi(n. pl.) A division of fishes including the perches and related kinds.

Perennibranchiate(a.) Having branchae, or gills, through life; -- said especially of certain Amphibia, like the menobranchus. Opposed to caducibranchiate.

Perfect(a.) Hermaphrodite; having both stamens and pistils; -- said of flower.

Perforator(n.) One who, or that which, perforates; esp., a cephalotome.

Peri-() A prefix used to signify around, by, near, over, beyond, or to give an intensive sense; as, perimeter, the measure around; perigee, point near the earth; periergy, work beyond what is needed; perispherical, quite spherical.

Peribranchial(a.) Around the bronchi or bronchial tubes; as, the peribronchial lymphatics.

Pericellular(a.) Surrounding a cell; as, the pericellular lymph spaces surrounding ganglion cells.

Perigone(n.) A sac which surrounds the generative bodies in the gonophore of a hydroid.


Perihelium(n.) That point of the orbit of a planet or comet which is nearest to the sun; -- opposed to aphelion.

Perilymph(n.) The fluid which surrounds the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear, and separates it from the walls of the chambers in which the labyrinth lies.

Perilymphangial(a.) Around, or at the side of, a lymphatic vessel.

Perilymphatic(a.) Pertaining to, or containing, perilymph.

Perilymphatic(a.) Perilymphangial.

Perimorph(n.) A crystal of one species inclosing one of another species. See Endomorph.

Perineorrhaphy(n.) The operation of sewing up a ruptured perineum.

Perinephritis(n.) Inflammation of the cellular tissue around the kidney.

Period(n.) A portion of time as limited and determined by some recurring phenomenon, as by the completion of a revolution of one of the heavenly bodies; a division of time, as a series of years, months, or days, in which something is completed, and ready to recommence and go on in the same order; as, the period of the sun, or the earth, or a comet.

Periodicity(n.) The quality or state of being periodical, or regularly recurrent; as, the periodicity in the vital phenomena of plants.

Peripatetic(a.) Of or pertaining to the philosophy taught by Aristotle (who gave his instructions while walking in the Lyceum at Athens), or to his followers.

Peripateticism(n.) The doctrines or philosophical system of the peripatetics. See Peripatetic, n., 2.

Peripheral(a.) Of or pertaining to a periphery; constituting a periphery; peripheric.

Peripheral(a.) External; away from the center; as, the peripheral portion of the nervous system.

Peripheric(a.) Alt. of Peripherical

Peripherical(a.) See Peripheral.

Peripheries(pl. ) of Periphery

Periphery(n.) The outside or superficial portions of a body; the surface.

Periphery(n.) The circumference of a circle, ellipse, or other figure.

Periphrase(n.) The use of more words than are necessary to express the idea; a roundabout, or indirect, way of speaking; circumlocution.

Periphrased(imp. & p. p.) of Periphrase

Periphrasing(p. pr. & vb. n.) of Periphrase

Periphrase(v. t.) To express by periphrase or circumlocution.

Periphrase(v. i.) To use circumlocution.

Periphrases(pl. ) of Periphrasis

Periphrasis(n.) See Periphrase.

Periphrastic(a.) Alt. of Periphrastical

Periphrastical(a.) Expressing, or expressed, in more words than are necessary; characterized by periphrase; circumlocutory.

Periphrastically(adv.) With circumlocution.

Perispheric(a.) Alt. of Perispherical

Perispherical(a.) Exactly spherical; globular.

Peristeromorphous(a.) Like or pertaining to the pigeons or Columbae.

Peristrephic(a.) Turning around; rotatory; revolving; as, a peristrephic painting (of a panorama).

Peritoneum(n.) The smooth serous membrane

Perityphlitis(n.) Inflammation of the connective tissue about the caecum.

Perivascular(a.) Around the blood vessels; as, perivascular lymphatics.

Perseus(n.) A consellation of the northern hemisphere, near Taurus and Cassiopea. It contains a star cluster visible to the naked eye as a nebula.

Perspectograph(n.) An instrument for obtaining, and transferring to a picture


Persulphate(n.) A sulphate of the peroxide of any base.

Persulphide(n.) A sulphide containing more sulphur than some other compound of the same elements; as, iron pyrites is a persulphide; -- formerly called persulphuret.

Persulphocyanate(n.) A salt of persulphocyanic acid.

Persulphocyanic(a.) Pertaining to, or designating, a yellow crystal.

Persulphocyanogen(n.) An orange-yellow substance, produced by the action of chlorine or boiling dilute nitric acid and sulphocyanate of potassium; -- called also pseudosulphocyanogen, perthiocyanogen, and formerly sulphocyanogen.

Persulphuret(n.) A persulphide.

Perthiocyanogen(n.) Same as Persulphocyanogen.

Pervious(a.) Capable of being penetrated, or seen through, by physical or mental vision.

Phragmosiphon(n.) The siphon of a phragmocone.

Phrasal(a.) Of the nature of a phrase; consisting of a phrase; as, a phrasal adverb.

Phrase(n.) A brief expression, sometimes a single word, but usually two or more words forming an expression by themselves, or being a portion of a sentence; as, an adverbial phrase.

Phrase(v. i.) To use proper or fine phrases.

Phrase(v. i.) To group notes into phrases; as, he phrases well. See Phrase, n., 4.

Phraseogram(n.) A symbol for a phrase.

Phraseological(a.) Of or pertaining to phraseology; consisting of a peculiar form of words.

Phraseologist(n.) A collector or coiner of phrases.

Phraseology(n.) A collection of phrases; a phrase book.

Phrasing(n.) The act or method of grouping the notes so as to form distinct musical phrases.

Phratry(n.) A subdivision of a phyle, or tribe, in Athens.

Phrenetical(a.) Relating to phrenitis; suffering from frenzy; delirious; mad; frantic; frenetic.

Phrenetic(n.) One who is phrenetic.

Phrenic(a.) Of or pertaining to the diaphragm; diaphragmatic; as, the phrenic nerve.

Phrenics(n.) That branch of science which relates to the mind; mental philosophy.

Phrenitis(n.) Inflammation of the brain, or of the meninges of the brain, attended with acute fever and delirium; -- called also cephalitis.

Phrenograph(n.) An instrument for registering the movements of the diaphragm, or midriff, in respiration.

Phrenologer(n.) A phrenologist.

Phrenological(a.) Of or pertaining to phrenology.

Phrenologist(n.) One versed in phrenology; a craniologist.

Phrenology(n.) In popular usage, the physiological hypothesis of Gall, that the mental faculties, and traits of character, are shown on the surface of the head or skull; craniology.

Pornographic(a.) Of or pertaining to pornography; lascivious; licentious; as, pornographic writing.

Pornography(n.) Licentious painting or literature; especially, the painting anciently employed to decorate the walls of rooms devoted to bacchanalian orgies.

Pornography(n.) A treatise on prostitutes, or prostitution.

Porphyraceous(a.) Porphyritic.

Porphyre(n.) Porphyry.

Porphyrite(n.) A rock with a porphyritic structure; as, augite porphyrite.

Porphyritic(a.) Relating to, or resembling, porphyry, that is, characterized by the presence of distinct crystals, as of feldspar, quartz, or augite, in a relatively fine-grained base, often aphanitic or cryptocrystal.

Porphyrization(n.) The act of porphyrizing, or the state of being porphyrized.

Porphyrize(v. t.) To cause to resemble porphyry; to make spotted in composition, like porphyry.

Porphyrogenitism(n.) The principle of succession in royal families, especially among the Eastern Roman emperors, by which a younger son, if born after the accession of his father to the throne, was preferred to an elder son who was not so born.

Porphyries(pl. ) of Porphyry

Porphyry(n.) A term used somewhat loosely to designate a rock consisting of a fine-grained base (usually feldspathic) through which crystals, as of feldspar or quartz, are disseminated. There are red, purple, and green varieties, which are highly esteemed as marbles.

Porpita(n.) A genus of bright-colored Siphonophora found floating in the warmer parts of the ocean. The individuals are round and disk-shaped, with a large zooid in the center of the under side, surrounded by smaller nutritive and reproductive zooids, and by slender dactylozooids near the margin. The disk contains a central float, or pneumatocyst.

Porpoise(n.) Any small cetacean of the genus Phocaena, especially P. communis, or P. phocaena, of Europe, and the closely allied American species (P. Americana). The color is dusky or blackish above, paler beneath. They are closely allied to the dolphins, but have a shorter snout. Called also harbor porpoise, herring hag, puffing pig, and snuffer.

Porpoise(n.) A true dolphin (Delphinus); -- often so called by sailors.

Porporino(n.) A composition of quicksilver, tin, and sulphur, forming a yellow powder, sometimes used by mediaeval artists, for the sake of economy, instead of gold.

Portative(a.) Capable of holding up or carrying; as, the portative force of a magnet, of atmospheric pressure, or of capillarity.

Portfire(n.) A case of strong paper filled with a composition of niter, sulphur, and mealed powder, -- used principally to ignite the priming in proving guns, and as an incendiary material in shells.


Purity(n.) Freedom from foreign idioms, or from barbarous or improper words or phrases; as, purity of style.

Purview(n.) Limit or sphere of authority; scope; extent.

Pyrargyrite(n.) Ruby silver; dark red silver ore. It is a sulphide of antimony and silver, occurring in rhombohedral crystals or massive, and is of a dark red or black color with a metallic adamantine luster.

Pyrenoid(n.) A transparent body found in the chromatophores of certain Infusoria.

Pyrethrin(n.) A substance resembling, and isomeric with, ordinary camphor, and extracted from the essential oil of feverfew; -- called also Pyrethrum camphor.

Pyridyl(n.) A hypothetical radical, C5H4N, regarded as the essential residue of pyridine, and analogous to phenyl.

Pyrite(n.) A common mineral of a pale brass-yellow color and brilliant metallic luster, crystallizing in the isometric system; iron pyrites; iron disulphide.

Pyrites(n.) A name given to a number of metallic minerals, sulphides of iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, and tin, of a white or yellowish color.

Pyr-() Combining forms designating fire or heat; specifically (Chem.), used to imply an actual or theoretical derivative by the action of heat; as in pyrophosphoric, pyrosulphuric, pyrotartaric, pyrotungstic, etc.

Pyroantimonic(a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid of antimony analogous to pyrophosphoric acid.

Pyroarsenic(a.) Pertaining to or designating, an acid of arsenic analogous to pyrophosphoric acid.

Pyrocatechin(n.) A white crystal.

Pyrogallol(n.) A phenol metameric with phloroglucin, obtained by the distillation of gallic acid as a poisonous white crystal.

Pyrography(n.) A process of printing, ornamenting, or carving, by burning with heated instruments.

Pyrology(n.) That branch of physical science which treats of the properties, phenomena, or effects of heat; also, a treatise on heat.

Pyromorphite(n.) Native lead phosphate with lead chloride, occurring in bright green and brown hexagonal crystals and also massive; -- so called because a fused globule crystallizes in cooling.

Pyromorphous(a.) Having the property of crystallizing by the agency of fire.

Pyrophane(n.) A mineral which is opaque in its natural state, but is said to change its color and become transparent by heat.

Pyrophanous(a.) Rendered transparent by heat.

Pyrophone(n.) A musical instrument in which the tones are produced by flames of hydrogen, or illuminating gas, burning in tubes of different sizes and lengths.

Pyrophoric(a.) Alt. of Pyrophorous

Pyrophorous(a.) Light-producing; of or pertaining to pyrophorus.

Pyrophorus(n.) Any one of several substances or mixtures which phosphoresce or ignite spontaneously on exposure to air, as a heated mixture of alum, potash, and charcoal, or a mixture of charcoal and finely divided lead.

Pyrophosphate(n.) A salt of pyrophosphoric acid.

Pyrophosphoric(a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid, H4P2O7, which is obtained as a white crystal.

Pyrophyllite(n.) A mineral, usually of a white or greenish color and pearly luster, consisting chiefly of the hydrous silicate of alumina.

Pyrosome(n.) Any compound ascidian of the genus Pyrosoma. The pyrosomes form large hollow cylinders, sometimes two or three feet long, which swim at the surface of the sea and are very phosphorescent.

Pyrosulphate(n.) A salt of pyrosulphuric acid.

Pyrosulphuric(a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid called also disulphuric acid) obtained by distillation of certain sulphates, as a colorless, thick, oily liquid, H2S2O7 resembling sulphuric acid. It is used in the solution of indigo, in the manufacture of alizarin, and in dehydration.

Pyrovanadic(a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid of vanadium, analogous to pyrophosphoric acid.

Pyrrhotite(n.) A bronze-colored mineral, of metallic luster. It is a sulphide of iron, and is remarkable for being attracted by the magnet. Called also magnetic pyrites.

Rare(superl.) Characterized by wide separation of parts; of loose texture; not thick or dense; thin; as, a rare atmosphere at high elevations.

Rorqual(n.) A very large North Atlantic whalebone whale (Physalus antiquorum, or Balaenoptera physalus). It has a dorsal fin, and strong longitudinal folds on the throat and belly. Called also razorback.

Sarco-() A combining form from Gr. sa`rx, sa`rkos, flesh; as, sarcophagous, flesh-eating; sarcology.

Sarcophaga(n. pl.) A suborder of carnivorous and insectivorous marsupials including the dasyures and the opossums.

Sarcophaga(n.) A genus of Diptera, including the flesh flies.

Sarcophagan(n.) Any animal which eats flesh, especially any carnivorous marsupial.

Sarcophagan(n.) Any fly of the genus Sarcophaga.

Sarcophagous(a.) Feeding on flesh; flesh-eating; carnivorous.

Sarcophagi(pl. ) of Sarcophagus

Sarcophaguses(pl. ) of Sarcophagus

Sarcophagus(n.) A species of limestone used among the Greeks for making coffins, which was so called because it consumed within a few weeks the flesh of bodies deposited in it. It is otherwise called lapis Assius, or Assian stone, and is said to have been found at Assos, a city of Lycia.

Sarcophagus(n.) A coffin or chest-shaped tomb of the kind of stone described above; hence, any stone coffin.

Sarcophagus(n.) A stone shaped like a sarcophagus and placed by a grave as a memorial.

Sarcophagy(n.) The practice of eating flesh.

Sarcophile(n.) A flesh-eating animal, especially any one of the carnivorous marsupials.

Sarcorhamphi(n. pl.) A division of raptorial birds comprising the vultures.

Sarigue(n.) A small South American opossum (Didelphys opossum), having four white spots on the face.

Scrat(n.) An hermaphrodite.

Scratch(a.) Made, done, or happening by chance; arranged with little or no preparation; determined by circumstances; haphazard; as, a scratch team; a scratch crew for a boat race; a scratch shot in billiards.

Screw(n.) An amphipod crustacean; as, the skeleton screw (Caprella). See Sand screw, under Sand.

Scrofula(n.) A constitutional disease, generally hereditary, especially manifested by chronic enlargement and cheesy degeneration of the lymphatic glands, particularly those of the neck, and marked by a tendency to the development of chronic intractable inflammations of the skin, mucous membrane, bones, joints, and other parts, and by a diminution in the power of resistance to disease or injury and the capacity for recovery.

Scrophularia(n.) A genus of coarse herbs having small flowers in panicled cymes; figwort.

Scrophulariaceous(a.) Of or pertaining to a very large natural order of gamopetalous plants (Scrophulariaceae, or Scrophularineae), usually having irregular didynamous flowers and a two-celled pod. The order includes the mullein, foxglove, snapdragon, figwort, painted cup, yellow rattle, and some exotic trees, as the Paulownia.

Seraphs(pl. ) of Seraph

Seraphim(pl. ) of Seraph

Seraph(n.) One of an order of celestial beings, each having three pairs of wings. In ecclesiastical art and in poetry, a seraph is represented as one of a class of angels.

Seraphic(a.) Alt. of Seraphical

Seraphical(a.) Of or pertaining to a seraph; becoming, or suitable to, a seraph; angelic; sublime; pure; refined.

Seraphicism(n.) The character, quality, or state of a seraph; seraphicalness.

Seraphim(n.) The Hebrew plural of Seraph. Cf. Cherubim.

Seraphina(n.) A seraphine.

Seraphine(n.) A wind instrument whose sounding parts are reeds, consisting of a thin tongue of brass playing freely through a slot in a plate. It has a case, like a piano, and is played by means of a similar keybord, the bellows being worked by the foot. The melodeon is a portable variety of this instrument.

Seriema(n.) A large South American bird (Dicholophus, / Cariama cristata) related to the cranes. It is often domesticated. Called also cariama.

Serine(n.) A white crystal.

Seriph(n.) See Ceriph.

Serpent(n.) Any reptile of the order Ophidia; a snake, especially a large snake. See Illust. under Ophidia.

Serpentarius(n.) A constellation on the equator, lying between Scorpio and Hercules; -- called also Ophiuchus.

Serpentinian(n.) See 2d Ophite.

Shrievalty(n.) The office, or sphere of jurisdiction, of a sheriff; sheriffalty.

Shrimp(v.) In a loose sense, any small crustacean, including some amphipods and even certain entomostracans; as, the fairy shrimp, and brine shrimp. See under Fairy, and Brine.

Shroud(n.) One of the two annular plates at the periphery of a water wheel, which form the sides of the buckets; a shroud plate.

Sir(n.) A respectful title, used in addressing a man, without being prefixed to his name; -- used especially in speaking to elders or superiors; sometimes, also, used in the way of emphatic formality.

Siren(n.) One of three sea nymphs, -- or, according to some writers, of two, -- said to frequent an island near the coast of Italy, and to sing with such sweetness that they lured mariners to destruction.

Siren(n.) Any long, slender amphibian of the genus Siren or family Sirenidae, destitute of hind legs and pelvis, and having permanent external gills as well as lungs. They inhabit the swamps, lagoons, and ditches of the Southern United States. The more common species (Siren lacertina) is dull lead-gray in color, and becames two feet long.

Syrup(n.) A thick and viscid saccharine solution of superior quality (as sugarhouse sirup or molasses, maple sirup); specifically, in pharmacy and often in cookery, a saturated solution of sugar and water (simple sirup), or such a solution flavored or medicated.

Soricine(a.) Of or pertaining to the Shrew family (Soricidae); like a shrew in form or habits; as, the soricine bat (Glossophaga soricina).

Sprawl(v. i.) To spread irregularly, as vines, plants, or tress; to spread ungracefully, as chirography.

Spring(v. t.) To cause to spring up; to start or rouse, as game; to cause to rise from the earth, or from a covert; as, to spring a pheasant.

Strangles(n.) A disease in horses and swine, in which the upper part of the throat, or groups of lymphatic glands elsewhere, swells.

Stratigraphic(a.) Alt. of Stratigraphical

Stratigraphical(a.) Pertaining to, or depended upon, the order or arrangement of strata; as, stratigraphical evidence.

Stratigraphic(a.) Alt. of -ical

Stratigraphy(n.) That branch of geology which treats of the arrangement and succession of strata.

Stratographic(a.) Alt. of Stratographical

Stratographical(a.) Of or pertaining to stratography.

Stratography(n.) A description of an army, or of what belongs to an army.

Strength(n.) The quality or state of being strong; ability to do or to bear; capacity for exertion or endurance, whether physical, intellectual, or moral; force; vigor; power; as, strength of body or of the arm; strength of mind, of memory, or of judgment.

Stress(n.) Force of utterance expended upon words or syllables. Stress is in English the chief element in accent and is one of the most important in emphasis. See Guide to pronunciation, // 31-35.

Strife(n.) Exertion or contention for superiority; contest of emulation, either by intellectual or physical efforts.

Strobila(n.) A form of the larva of certain Discophora in a state of development succeeding the scyphistoma. The body of the strobila becomes elongated, and subdivides transversely into a series of lobate segments which eventually become ephyrae, or young medusae.

Strobilation(n.) The act or phenomenon of spontaneously dividing transversely, as do certain species of annelids and helminths; transverse fission. See Illust. under Syllidian.

Stroboscope(n.) An instrument for studying or observing the successive phases of a periodic or varying motion by means of light which is periodically interrupted.

Stroboscope(n.) An optical toy similar to the phenakistoscope. See Phenakistoscope.

Stromeyerite(n.) A steel-gray mineral of metallic luster. It is a sulphide of silver and copper.

Strong(superl.) Having active physical power, or great physical power to act; having a power of exerting great bodily force; vigorous.

Strong(superl.) Having passive physical power; having ability to bear or endure; firm; hale; sound; robust; as, a strong constitution; strong health.

Strophanthus(n.) A genus of tropical apocynaceous shrubs having singularly twisted flowers. One species (Strophanthus hispidus) is used medicinally as a cardiac sedative and stimulant.

Strophes(pl. ) of Strophe

Strophe(n.) In Greek choruses and dances, the movement of the chorus while turning from the right to the left of the orchestra; hence, the strain, or part of the choral ode, sung during this movement. Also sometimes used of a stanza of modern verse. See the Note under Antistrophe.

Strophic(a.) Pertaining to, containing, or consisting of, strophes.

Strophiolate(a.) Alt. of Strophiolated

Strophiolated(a.) Furnished with a strophiole, or caruncle, or that which resembles it.

Strophiole(n.) A crestlike excrescence about the hilum of certain seeds; a caruncle.

Strophulus(n.) See Red-gum, 1.

Struvite(n.) A crystal.

Strychnine(n.) A very poisonous alkaloid resembling brucine, obtained from various species of plants, especially from species of Loganiaceae, as from the seeds of the St. Ignatius bean (Strychnos Ignatia) and from nux vomica. It is obtained as a white crystal.

Stryphnic(a.) Pertaining to, or designating, a complex nitrogenous acid, obtained by the action of acetic acid and potassium nitrite on uric acid, as a yellow crystal.

Surface(n.) A magnitude that has length and breadth without thickness; superficies; as, a plane surface; a spherical surface.

Surfle(v. t.) To wash, as the face, with a cosmetic water, said by some to be prepared from the sulphur.

Surloin(n.) A loin of beef, or the upper part of the loin. See Sirloin, the more usual, but not etymologically preferable, orthography.

Surphul(v. t.) To surfel.

Surrey(n.) A four-wheeled pleasure carriage, (commonly two-seated) somewhat like a phaeton, but having a straight bottom.

Syrphian(a.) Of or pertaining to the syrphus flies.

Syrphian(n.) A syrphus fly.

Syrphus fly() Any one of numerous species of dipterous flies of the genus Syrphus and allied genera. They are usually bright-colored, with yellow bands, and hover around plants. The larvae feed upon plant lice, and are, therefore, very beneficial to agriculture.

Targum(n.) A translation or paraphrase of some portion of the Old Testament Scriptures in the Chaldee or Aramaic language or dialect.

Tarsorrhaphy(n.) An operation to diminish the size of the opening between eyelids when enlarged by surrounding cicatrices.

Tartar(n.) A correction which often incrusts the teeth, consisting of salivary mucus, animal matter, and phosphate of lime.

Tartralic(a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid obtained as a white amorphous deliquescent substance, C8H10O11; -- called also ditartaric, tartrilic, or tartrylic acid.

Tartrazine(n.) An artificial dyestuff obtained as an orange-yellow powder, and regarded as a phenyl hydrazine derivative of tartaric and sulphonic acids.

Teraphs(pl. ) of Teraph

Teraph(n.) See Teraphim.

Teraphim(n. pl.) Images connected with the magical rites used by those Israelites who added corrupt practices to the patriarchal religion. Teraphim were consulted by the Israelites for oracular answers.

Terebene(n.) A polymeric modification of terpene, obtained as a white crystal.

Terephthalate(n.) A salt of terephthalic acid.

Terephthalic(a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a dibasic acid of the aromatic series, metameric with phthalic acid, and obtained, as a tasteless white crystal.

Terrel(n.) A spherical magnet so placed that its poles, equator, etc., correspond to those of the earth.

Terry(n.) A kind of heavy colored fabric, either all silk, or silk and worsted, or silk and cotton, often called terry velvet, used for upholstery and trimmings.

Tersulphide(n.) A trisulphide.

Tersulphuret(n.) A trisulphide.

Throat(n.) Hence, the passage through it to the stomach and lungs; the pharynx; -- sometimes restricted to the fauces.

Thrush(n.) An affection of the mouth, fauces, etc., common in newly born children, characterized by minute ulcers called aphthae. See Aphthae.

Torbernite(n.) A mineral occurring in emerald-green tabular crystals having a micaceous structure. It is a hydrous phosphate of uranium and copper. Called also copper uranite, and chalcolite.

Toreumatography(n.) A description of sculpture such as bas-relief in metal.

Toreumatology(n.) The art or the description of scupture such as bas-relief in metal; toreumatography.

Torqued(a.) Twisted; bent; -- said of a dolphin haurient, which forms a figure like the letter S.

Torricellian(a.) Of or pertaining to Torricelli, an Italian philosopher and mathematician, who, in 1643, discovered that the rise of a liquid in a tube, as in the barometer, is due to atmospheric pressure. See Barometer.

Turn(v. t.) To change the form, quality, aspect, or effect of; to alter; to metamorphose; to convert; to transform; -- often with to or into before the word denoting the effect or product of the change; as, to turn a worm into a winged insect; to turn green to blue; to turn prose into verse; to turn a Whig to a Tory, or a Hindu to a Christian; to turn good to evil, and the like.

Turnbull's blue() The double cyanide of ferrous and ferric iron, a dark blue amorphous substance having a coppery luster, used in dyeing, calico printing, etc. Cf. Prussian blue, under Prussian.

Turnicimorphae(n. pl.) A division of birds including Turnix and allied genera, resembling quails in appearance but differing from them anatomically.

Turnix(n.) Any one of numerous species of birds belonging to Turnix or Hemipodius and allied genera of the family Turnicidae. These birds resemble quails and partridges in general appearance and in some of their habits, but differ in important anatomical characteristics. The hind toe is usually lacking. They are found in Asia, Africa, Southern Europe, the East Indian Islands, and esp. in Australia and adjacent islands, where they are called quails (see Quail, n., 3.). See Turnicimorphae.

Turnsole(a.) A kind of spurge (Euphorbia Helioscopia).

Turnsole(a.) The euphorbiaceous plant Chrozophora tinctoria.

Turpeth(n.) A heavy yellow powder, Hg3O2SO4, which consists of a basic mercuric sulphate; -- called also turpeth mineral.

Turquois(n.) A hydrous phosphate of alumina containing a little copper; calaite. It has a blue, or bluish green, color, and usually occurs in reniform masses with a botryoidal surface.

Tyrosin(n.) A white crystal.

Utricular(a.) Resembling a utricle or bag, whether large or minute; -- said especially with reference to the condition of certain substances, as sulphur, selenium, etc., when condensed from the vaporous state and deposited upon cold bodies, in which case they assume the form of small globules filled with liquid.

Uvrou(n.) See Euphroe.

Variolite(n.) A kind of diorite or diabase containing imbedded whitish spherules, which give the rock a spotted appearance.

Variscite(n.) An apple-green mineral occurring in reniform masses. It is a hydrous phosphate of alumina.

Veratralbine(n.) A yellowish amorphous alkaloid extracted from the rootstock of Veratrum album.

Verdant(a.) Unripe in knowledge or judgment; unsophisticated; raw; green; as, a verdant youth.

Verd antique() A green porphyry called oriental verd antique.

Verfication(n.) A formal phrase used in concluding a plea.

Verine(n.) An alkaloid obtained as a yellow amorphous substance by the decomposition of veratrine.

Vermiculate(a.) Crawling or creeping like a worm; hence, insinuating; sophistical.

Vermilion(n.) A bright red pigment consisting of mercuric sulphide, obtained either from the mineral cinnabar or artificially. It has a fine red color, and is much used in coloring sealing wax, in printing, etc.

Veronica(n.) A genus scrophulariaceous plants; the speedwell. See Speedwell.

Vertebra(n.) One of the central ossicles in each joint of the arms of an ophiuran.

Vertebrata(n. pl.) One of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom, comprising all animals that have a backbone composed of bony or cartilaginous vertebrae, together with Amphioxus in which the backbone is represented by a simple undivided notochord. The Vertebrata always have a dorsal, or neural, cavity above the notochord or backbone, and a ventral, or visceral, cavity below it.

Vertebrated(a.) Having a backbone, or vertebral column, containing the spinal marrow, as man, quadrupeds, birds, amphibia, and fishes.

Vertebrated(a.) Having movable joints resembling vertebrae; -- said of the arms ophiurans.

Virescence() The act or state of becoming green through the formation of chlorophyll.

Virial(n.) A certain function relating to a system of forces and their points of application, -- first used by Clausius in the investigation of problems in molecular physics.

War(n.) A condition of belligerency to be maintained by physical force. In this sense, levying war against the sovereign authority is treason.

Warrandice(n.) The obligation by which a person, conveying a subject or a right, is bound to uphold that subject or right against every claim, challenge, or burden arising from circumstances prior to the conveyance; warranty.

Warren(n.) A place privileged, by prescription or grant the king, for keeping certain animals (as hares, conies, partridges, pheasants, etc.) called beasts and fowls of warren.

Warsaw(n.) The black grouper (Epinephelus nigritus) of the southern coasts of the United States.

Wartwort(n.) A name given to several plants because they were thought to be a cure for warts, as a kind of spurge (Euphorbia Helioscopia), and the nipplewort (Lampsana communis).

Wire(n.) A telegraph wire or cable; hence, an electric telegraph; as, to send a message by wire.

Wire(v. t.) To send (a message) by telegraph.

Wire(v. i.) To send a telegraphic message.

Word(n.) A brief remark or observation; an expression; a phrase, clause, or short sentence.

Word(v. t.) To express in words; to phrase.

Wording(n.) The act or manner of expressing in words; style of expression; phrasing.

Work(n.) Exertion of strength or faculties; physical or intellectual effort directed to an end; industrial activity; toil; employment; sometimes, specifically, physically labor.

Worse(compar.) Bad, ill, evil, or corrupt, in a greater degree; more bad or evil; less good; specifically, in poorer health; more sick; -- used both in a physical and moral sense.

Worst(a.) Bad, evil, or pernicious, in the highest degree, whether in a physical or moral sense. See Worse.

Worth(v. i.) To be; to become; to betide; -- now used only in the phrases, woe worth the day, woe worth the man, etc., in which the verb is in the imperative, and the nouns day, man, etc., are in the dative. Woe be to the day, woe be to the man, etc., are equivalent phrases.

Xeraphim(n.) An old money of account in Bombay, equal to three fifths of a rupee.

Xeroderma(n.) A skin disease characterized by the presence of numerous small pigmented spots resembling freckles, with which are subsequently mingled spots of atrophied skin.

Xerophagy(n.) Among the primitive Christians, the living on a diet of dry food in Lent and on other fasts.

Xerophilous(a.) Drought-loving; able withstand the absence or lack of moisture.

Xerophthalmia(n.) An abnormal dryness of the eyeball produced usually by long-continued inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the conjunctiva.

Xerophthalmy(n.) Xerophthalmia.

Zarnich(n.) Native sulphide of arsenic, including sandarach, or realgar, and orpiment.

Zero(n.) A cipher; nothing; naught.

Zoroastrianism(n.) The religious system of Zoroaster, the legislator and prophet of the ancient Persians, which was the national faith of Persia; mazdeism. The system presupposes a good spirit (Ormuzd) and an opposing evil spirit (Ahriman). Cf. Fire worship, under Fire, and Parsee.

About the author

Mark McCracken

Author: Mark McCracken is a corporate trainer and author living in Higashi Osaka, Japan. He is the author of thousands of online articles as well as the Business English textbook, "25 Business Skills in English".

Copyright © 2011 Mark McCracken , All Rights Reserved.