Words whose 4th letter is R
Abbreviation (n.) One dash, or more, through the stem of a note, dividing it respectively into quavers, semiquavers, or demi-semiquavers.
Abbreviator (n.) One of a college of seventy-two officers of the papal court whose duty is to make a short minute of a decision on a petition, or reply of the pope to a letter, and afterwards expand the minute into official form.
Abortive (v.) Made from the skin of a still-born animal; as, abortive vellum.
Accrete (v. i.) To adhere; to grow (to); to be added; -- with to.
Accretion (n.) Gain to an heir or legatee, failure of a coheir to the same succession, or a co-legatee of the same thing, to take his share.
Acerate (a.) Acerose; needle-shaped.
Acerose (a.) Needle-shaped, having a sharp, rigid point, as the leaf of the pine.
Achromatic (a.) Uncolored; not absorbing color from a fluid; -- said of tissue.
Acorn (n.) A cone-shaped piece of wood on the point of the spindle above the vane, on the mast-head.
Acorn (n.) See Acorn-shell.
Afar (adv.) At, to, or from a great distance; far away; -- often used with from preceding, or off following; as, he was seen from afar; I saw him afar off.
Affront (n.) An offense to one's self-respect; shame.
Aforehand (a.) Prepared; previously provided; -- opposed to behindhand.
Aforementioned (a.) Previously mentioned; before-mentioned.
Ageratum (n.) A genus of plants, one species of which (A. Mexicanum) has lavender-blue flowers in dense clusters.
Aggrandize (v. t.) To make great or greater in power, rank, honor, or wealth; -- applied to persons, countries, etc.
Aggravation (n.) The act of aggravating, or making worse; -- used of evils, natural or moral; the act of increasing in severity or heinousness; something additional to a crime or wrong and enhancing its guilt or injurious consequences.
Aggregate (a.) United into a common organized mass; -- said of certain compound animals.
Aggregate (n.) A mass formed by the union of homogeneous particles; -- in distinction from a compound, formed by the union of heterogeneous particles.
Aggress (v. i.) To commit the first act of hostility or offense; to begin a quarrel or controversy; to make an attack; -- with on.
Aggrieve (v. t.) To give pain or sorrow to; to afflict; hence, to oppress or injure in one's rights; to bear heavily upon; -- now commonly used in the passive TO be aggrieved.
Alarming (a.) Exciting, or calculated to excite, alarm; causing apprehension of danger; as, an alarming crisis or report. -- A*larm"ing*ly, adv.
Alary (a.) Of or pertaining to wings; also, wing-shaped.
Alfresco (adv. & a.) In the open-air.
Altrices (n. pl.) Nursers, -- a term applied to those birds whose young are hatched in a very immature and helpless condition, so as to require the care of their parents for some time; -- opposed to praecoces.
Altruism (n.) Regard for others, both natural and moral; devotion to the interests of others; brotherly kindness; -- opposed to egoism or selfishness.
Altruist (n.) One imbued with altruism; -- opposed to egoist.
Altruistic (a.) Regardful of others; beneficent; unselfish; -- opposed to egoistic or selfish.
Alure (n.) A walk or passage; -- applied to passages of various kinds.
Ambreic (a.) Of or pertaining to ambrein; -- said of a certain acid produced by digesting ambrein in nitric acid.
Ambrose (n.) A sweet-scented herb; ambrosia. See Ambrosia, 3.
American (n.) A native of America; -- originally applied to the aboriginal inhabitants, but now applied to the descendants of Europeans born in America, and especially to the citizens of the United States.
Amorous (a.) Affected with love; in love; enamored; -- usually with of; formerly with on.
Androdioecious (a.) Alt. of -diecious
Andromed (n.) A meteor appearing to radiate from a point in the constellation Andromeda, -- whence the name.
Anorthoclase (n.) A feldspar closely related to orthoclase, but triclinic. It is chiefly a silicate of sodium, potassium, and aluminium. Sp. gr., 2.57 -- 2.60.
Anorthosite (n.) A granular igneous rock composed almost exclusively of a soda-lime feldspar, usually labradorite.
Anarthropoda (n. pl.) One of the divisions of Articulata in which there are no jointed legs, as the annelids; -- opposed to Arthropoda.
Androphagi (n. pl.) Cannibals; man-eaters; anthropophagi.
Aneroid (a.) Containing no liquid; -- said of a kind of barometer.
Angry (superl.) Touched with anger; under the emotion of anger; feeling resentment; enraged; -- followed generally by with before a person, and at before a thing.
Araroba (n.) A fabaceous tree of Brazil (Centrolobium robustum) having handsomely striped wood; -- called also zebrawood.
Aperture (n.) The diameter of the exposed part of the object glass of a telescope or other optical instrument; as, a telescope of four-inch aperture.
Aporosa (n. pl.) A group of corals in which the coral is not porous; -- opposed to Perforata.
Aport (adv.) On or towards the port or left side; -- said of the helm.
Appreciate (v. t.) To raise the value of; to increase the market price of; -- opposed to depreciate.
Appreciation (n.) A rise in value; -- opposed to depreciation.
Apprenticeship (n.) The time an apprentice is serving (sometimes seven years, as from the age of fourteen to twenty-one).
Apprise (v. t.) To give notice, verbal or written; to inform; -- followed by of; as, we will apprise the general of an intended attack; he apprised the commander of what he had done.
Approaching (n.) The act of ingrafting a sprig or shoot of one tree into another, without cutting it from the parent stock; -- called, also, inarching and grafting by approach.
Appropriate (v. t.) To set apart for, or assign to, a particular person or use, in exclusion of all others; -- with to or for; as, a spot of ground is appropriated for a garden; to appropriate money for the increase of the navy.
Approve (v. t.) To sanction officially; to ratify; to confirm; as, to approve the decision of a court-martial.
Approve (v. t.) To make profit of; to convert to one's own profit; -- said esp. of waste or common land appropriated by the lord of the manor.
Apyretic (a.) Without fever; -- applied to days when there is an intermission of fever.
Asarone (n.) A crystallized substance, resembling camphor, obtained from the Asarum Europaeum; -- called also camphor of asarum.
Astringent (a.) Drawing together the tissues; binding; contracting; -- opposed to laxative; as, astringent medicines; a butter and astringent taste; astringent fruit.
Astroite (n.) A radiated stone or fossil; star-stone.
Astronomy (n.) A treatise on, or text-book of, the science.
Astructive (a.) Building up; constructive; -- opposed to destructive.
Attrite (a.) Repentant from fear of punishment; having attrition of grief for sin; -- opposed to contrite.
Azure (a.) Sky-blue; resembling the clear blue color of the unclouded sky; cerulean; also, cloudless.
Azured (a.) Of an azure color; sky-blue.
Azurine (n.) The blue roach of Europe (Leuciscus caeruleus); -- so called from its color.
Barracan (n.) A thick, strong stuff, somewhat like camlet; -- still used for outer garments in the Levant.
Barraclade (n.) A home-made woolen blanket without nap.
Barracouata (n.) A large edible fresh-water fish of Australia and New Zealand (Thyrsites atun).
Barrelled (a.) Having a barrel; -- used in composition; as, a double-barreled gun.
Barren (a.) Incapable of producing offspring; producing no young; sterile; -- said of women and female animals.
Barret (n.) A kind of cap formerly worn by soldiers; -- called also barret cap. Also, the flat cap worn by Roman Catholic ecclesiastics.
Barrigudo (n.) A large, dark-colored, South American monkey, of the genus Lagothrix, having a long prehensile tail.
Barringout (n.) The act of closing the doors of a schoolroom against a schoolmaster; -- a boyish mode of rebellion in schools.
Barruly (a.) Traversed by barrulets or small bars; -- said of the field.
Barry (a.) Divided into bars; -- said of the field.
Batrachomyomachy (n.) The battle between the frogs and mice; -- a Greek parody on the Iliad, of uncertain authorship.
Barramundi (n.) A remarkable Australian fresh-water ganoid fish of the genus Ceratodus.
Bear (v. t.) To conduct; to bring; -- said of persons.
Bear (v. i.) To press; -- with on or upon, or against.
Bear (v. i.) To relate or refer; -- with on or upon; as, how does this bear on the question?
Bear (n.) A block covered with coarse matting; -- used to scour the deck.
Bearberry (n.) A trailing plant of the heath family (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), having leaves which are tonic and astringent, and glossy red berries of which bears are said to be fond.
Beard (v. t.) To deprive of the gills; -- used only of oysters and similar shellfish.
Bearer (n.) A strip of reglet or other furniture to bear off the impression from a blank page; also, a type or type-high piece of metal interspersed in blank parts to support the plate when it is shaved.
Bearing (n.) Any single emblem or charge in an escutcheon or coat of arms -- commonly in the pl.
Bearing (n.) The widest part of a vessel below the plank-sheer.
Bearing rein () A short rein looped over the check hook or the hames to keep the horse's head up; -- called in the United States a checkrein.
Betray (v. t.) To show or to indicate; -- said of what is not obvious at first, or would otherwise be concealed.
Betroth (v. t.) To contract to any one for a marriage; to engage or promise in order to marriage; to affiance; -- used esp. of a woman.
Beurre (n.) A beurre (or buttery) pear, one with the meat soft and melting; -- used with a distinguishing word; as, Beurre d'Anjou; Beurre Clairgeau.
Biprism (n.) A combination of two short rectangular glass prisms cemented together at their diagonal faces so as to form a cube; -- called also optical cube. It is used in one form of photometer.
Biorgan (n.) A physiological organ; a living organ; an organ endowed with function; -- distinguished from idorgan.
Blurt (v. t.) To utter suddenly and unadvisedly; to divulge inconsiderately; to ejaculate; -- commonly with out.
Board (n.) A piece of timber sawed thin, and of considerable length and breadth as compared with the thickness, -- used for building, etc.
Board (n.) Hence: What is served on a table as food; stated meals; provision; entertainment; -- usually as furnished for pay; as, to work for one's board; the price of board.
Boarfish (n.) A Mediterranean fish (Capros aper), of the family Caproidae; -- so called from the resemblance of the extended lips to a hog's snout.
Boor (n.) A rude ill-bred person; one who is clownish in manners.
Borrow (v. t.) To receive from another as a loan, with the implied or expressed intention of returning the identical article or its equivalent in kind; -- the opposite of lend.
Borrow (v. t.) To take (one or more) from the next higher denomination in order to add it to the next lower; -- a term of subtraction when the figure of the subtrahend is larger than the corresponding one of the minuend.
Bourdon (n.) A drone bass, as in a bagpipe, or a hurdy-gurdy. See Burden (of a song.)
Bournonite (n.) A mineral of a steel-gray to black color and metallic luster, occurring crystallized, often in twin crystals shaped like cogwheels (wheel ore), also massive. It is a sulphide of antimony, lead, and copper.
Burr (n.) A drill with a serrated head larger than the shank; -- used by dentists.
Burr (n.) A guttural pronounciation of the letter r, produced by trilling the extremity of the soft palate against the back part of the tongue; rotacism; -- often called the Newcastle, Northumberland, or Tweedside, burr.
Cabrerite (n.) An apple-green mineral, a hydrous arseniate of nickel, cobalt, and magnesia; -- so named from the Sierra Cabrera, Spain.
Cabriolet (n.) A one-horse carriage with two seats and a calash top.
Carromata (n.) In the Philippines, a light, two-wheeled, boxlike vehicle usually drawn by a single native pony and used to convey passengers within city limits or for traveling. It is the common public carriage.
Carrancha (n.) The Brazilian kite (Polyborus Brasiliensis); -- so called in imitation of its notes.
Carrion (n.) A contemptible or worthless person; -- a term of reproach.
Carrot (n.) The esculent root of cultivated varieties of the plant, usually spindle-shaped, and of a reddish yellow color.
Carroty (a.) Like a carrot in color or in taste; -- an epithet given to reddish yellow hair, etc.
Carry (v. t.) To convey or transport in any manner from one place to another; to bear; -- often with away or off.
Carry (v. t.) To bear (one's self); to behave, to conduct or demean; -- with the reflexive pronouns.
Carry (v. i.) To hold the head; -- said of a horse; as, to carry well i. e., to hold the head high, with arching neck.
Cerris (n.) A species of oak (Quercus cerris) native in the Orient and southern Europe; -- called also bitter oak and Turkey oak.
Charlie (n.) A night watchman; -- an old name.
Charlie (n.) As a proper name, a fox; -- so called in fables and familiar literature.
Charlie (n.) A night watchman; -- an old name.
Charlie (n.) As a proper name, a fox; -- so called in fables and familiar literature.
Charge (v. t.) Whatever constitutes a burden on property, as rents, taxes, Charge (n.) Thirty-six pigs of lead, each pig weighing about seventy pounds; -- called also charre.
Chariot (n.) A two-wheeled car or vehicle for war, racing, state processions, etc.
Chariot (n.) A four-wheeled pleasure or state carriage, having one seat.
Chariotee (n.) A light, covered, four-wheeled pleasure carriage with two seats.
Charpie (n.) Straight threads obtained by unraveling old Chartaceous (a.) Resembling paper or parchment; of paper-like texture; papery.
Chartism (n.) The principles of a political party in England (1838-48), which contended for universal suffrage, the vote by ballot, annual parliaments, equal electoral districts, and other radical reforms, as set forth in a document called the People's Charter.
Chartreuse (n.) An alcoholic cordial, distilled from aromatic herbs; -- made at La Grande Chartreuse.
Cherimoyer (n.) A small downy-leaved tree (Anona Cherimolia), with fragrant flowers. It is a native of Peru.
Cherry (n.) The common garden cherry (Prunus Cerasus), of which several hundred varieties are cultivated for the fruit, some of which are, the begarreau, blackheart, black Tartarian, oxheart, morelle or morello, May-duke (corrupted from Medoc in France).
Cherub (n.) A beautiful child; -- so called because artists have represented cherubs as beautiful children.
Churl (n.) A rough, surly, ill-bred man; a boor.
Churlish (a.) Like a churl; rude; cross-grained; ungracious; surly; illiberal; niggardly.
Churrworm (n.) An insect that turns about nimbly; the mole cricket; -- called also fan cricket.
Cirriform (a.) Formed like a cirrus or tendril; -- said of appendages of both animals and plants.
Cirrous (a.) Tufted; -- said of certain feathers of birds.
Clarence (n.) A close four-wheeled carriage, with one seat inside, and a seat for the driver.
Clarencieux (n.) See King-at-arms.
Clarichord (n.) A musical instrument, formerly in use, in form of a spinet; -- called also manichord and clavichord.
Clarify (v. t.) To make clear or bright by freeing from feculent matter; to defecate; to fine; -- said of liquids, as wine or sirup.
Coarctate (a.) Pressed together; closely connected; -- applied to insects having the abdomen separated from the thorax only by a constriction.
Coarse (superl.) Large in bulk, or composed of large parts or particles; of inferior quality or appearance; not fine in material or close in texture; gross; thick; rough; -- opposed to fine; as, coarse sand; coarse thread; coarse cloth; coarse bread.
Coerulignone (n.) A bluish violet, crystalCorral (v. t.) To surround and inclose; to coop up; to put into an inclosed space; -- primarily used with reference to securing horses and cattle in an inclosure of wagons while traversing the plains, but in the Southwestern United States now colloquially applied to the capturing, securing, or penning of anything.
Correct (v. t.) To counteract the qualities of one thing by those of another; -- said of whatever is wrong or injurious; as, to correct the acidity of the stomach by alkaCorreligionist (n.) A co-religion/ist.
Correspond (v. i.) To be like something else in the dimensions and arrangement of its parts; -- followed by with or to; as, concurring figures correspond with each other throughout.
Correspond (v. i.) To be adapted; to be congruous; to suit; to agree; to fit; to answer; -- followed by to.
Correspond (v. i.) To have intercourse or communion; especially, to hold intercourse or to communicate by sending and receiving letters; -- followed by with.
Corrugent (a.) Drawing together; contracting; -- said of the corrugator.
Courant (a.) Represented as running; -- said of a beast borne in a coat of arms.
Course (n.) The lowest sail on any mast of a square-rigged vessel; as, the fore course, main course, etc.
Courtehouse (n.) A county town; -- so called in Virginia and some others of the Southern States.
Courtship (n.) Court policy; the character of a courtier; artifice of a court; court-craft; finesse.
Cuirassed (a.) Having a covering of bony plates, resembling a cuirass; -- said of certain fishes.
Cupric (a.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, copper; containing copper; -- said of those compounds of copper in which this element is present in its lowest proportion.
Currant (n.) A small kind of seedless raisin, imported from the Levant, chiefly from Zante and Cephalonia; -- used in cookery.
Curricle (n.) A two-wheeled chaise drawn by two horses abreast.
Curry (v. t.) To dress or prepare for use by a process of scraping, cleansing, beating, smoothing, and coloring; -- said of leather.
Curry (v. t.) To beat or bruise; to drub; -- said of persons.
Cymry (n.) A collective term for the Welsh race; -- so called by themselves .
Cypris (n.) A genus of small, bivalve, fresh-water Crustacea, belonging to the Ostracoda; also, a member of this genus.
Degras (n.) A semisolid emulsion produced by the treatment of certain skins with oxidized fish oil, which extracts their soluble albuminoids. It was formerly solely a by-product of chamois leather manufacture, but is now made for its own sake, being valuable as a dressing for hides.
Dear (superl.) Bearing a high price; high-priced; costly; expensive.
Dearborn (n.) A four-wheeled carriage, with curtained sides.
Decrease (n.) To grow less, -- opposed to increase; to be diminished gradually, in size, degree, number, duration, etc., or in strength, quality, or excellence; as, they days decrease in length from June to December.
Decreation (n.) Destruction; -- opposed to creation.
Decree (v. i.) To make decrees; -- used absolutely.
Decrement (n.) The quantity lost by gradual diminution or waste; -- opposed to increment.
Decrescendo (a. & adv.) With decreasing volume of sound; -- a direction to performers, either written upon the staff (abbreviated Dec., or Decresc.), or indicated by the sign.
Deerberry (n.) A shrub of the blueberry group (Vaccinium stamineum); also, its bitter, greenish white berry; -- called also squaw huckleberry.
Deergrass (n.) An American genus (Rhexia) of perennial herbs, with opposite leaves, and showy flowers (usually bright purple), with four petals and eight stamens, -- the only genus of the order Melastomaceae inhabiting a temperate clime.
Defraud (v. t.) To deprive of some right, interest, or property, by a deceitful device; to withhold from wrongfully; to injure by embezzlement; to cheat; to overreach; as, to defraud a servant, or a creditor, or the state; -- with of before the thing taken or withheld.
Degraded (a.) Having steps; -- said of a cross each of whose extremities finishes in steps growing larger as they leave the center; -- termed also on degrees.
Depressed (a.) Concave on the upper side; -- said of a leaf whose disk is lower than the border.
Depressed (a.) Lying flat; -- said of a stem or leaf which lies close to the ground.
Depressed (a.) Having the vertical diameter shorter than the horizontal or transverse; -- said of the bodies of animals, or of parts of the bodies.
Depression (n.) The operation of reducing to a lower degree; -- said of equations.
Deprive (v. t.) To dispossess; to bereave; to divest; to hinder from possessing; to debar; to shut out from; -- with a remoter object, usually preceded by of.
Derringer (n.) A kind of short-barreled pocket pistol, of very large caliber, often carrying a half-ounce ball.
Detract (v. i.) To take away a part or something, especially from one's credit; to lessen reputation; to derogate; to defame; -- often with from.
Detriment (n.) That which injures or causes damage; mischief; harm; diminution; loss; damage; -- used very generically; as, detriments to property, religion, morals, etc.
Dieresis (n.) The separation or resolution of one syllable into two; -- the opposite of synaeresis.
Didrachma (n.) A two-drachma piece; an ancient Greek silver coin, worth nearly forty cents.
Digression (n.) The elongation, or angular distance from the sun; -- said chiefly of the inferior planets.
Diprotodon (n.) An extinct Quaternary marsupial from Australia, about as large as the hippopotamus; -- so named because of its two large front teeth. See Illustration in Appendix.
Ditrichotomous (a.) Dividing into double or treble ramifications; -- said of a leaf or stem.
Diurna (n. pl.) A division of Lepidoptera, including the butterflies; -- so called because they fly only in the daytime.
Diurnal (a.) Relating to the daytime; belonging to the period of daylight, distinguished from the night; -- opposed to nocturnal; as, diurnal heat; diurnal hours.
Diurnal (a.) Opening during the day, and closing at night; -- said of flowers or leaves.
Diurnal (a.) Active by day; -- applied especially to the eagles and hawks among raptorial birds, and to butterflies (Diurna) among insects.
Doornail (n.) The nail or knob on which in ancient doors the knocker struck; -- hence the old saying, "As dead as a doornail."
Durra (n.) A kind of millet, cultivated throughout Asia, and introduced into the south of Europe; a variety of Sorghum vulgare; -- called also Indian millet, and Guinea corn.
Dzeron (n.) The Chinese yellow antelope (Procapra gutturosa), a remarkably swift-footed animal, inhabiting the deserts of Central Asia, Thibet, and China.
Eagre (n.) A wave, or two or three successive waves, of great height and violence, at flood tide moving up an estuary or river; -- commonly called the bore. See Bore.
Eburin (n.) A composition of dust of ivory or of bone with a cement; -- used for imitations of valuable stones and in making moldings, seals, etc.
Emeritus (a.) Honorably discharged from the performance of public duty on account of age, infirmity, or long and faithful services; -- said of an officer of a college or pastor of a church.
Enarched (a.) Bent into a curve; -- said of a bend or other ordinary.
Enargite (n.) An iron-black mineral of metallic luster, occurring in small orthorhombic crystals, also massive. It contains sulphur, arsenic, copper, and often silver.
Encratite (n.) One of a sect in the 2d century who abstained from marriage, wine, and animal food; -- called also Continent.
Encrinoidea (n. pl.) That order of the Crinoidea which includes most of the living and many fossil forms, having jointed arms around the margin of the oral disk; -- also called Brachiata and Articulata. See Illusts. under Comatula and Crinoidea.
Encroach (v. i.) To enter by gradual steps or by stealth into the possessions or rights of another; to trespass; to intrude; to trench; -- commonly with on or upon; as, to encroach on a neighbor; to encroach on the highway.
Energy (n.) Strength of expression; force of utterance; power to impress the mind and arouse the feelings; life; spirit; -- said of speech, language, words, style; as, a style full of energy.
Entrochal (a.) Pertaining to, or consisting of, entrochites, or the joints of encrinites; -- used of a kind of stone or marble.
Eparterial (a.) Situated upon or above an artery; -- applied esp. to the branches of the bronchi given off above the point where the pulmonary artery crosses the bronchus.
Escribed (a.) Drawn outside of; -- used to designate a circle that touches one of the sides of a given triangle, and also the other two sides produced.
Estreat (v. t.) To extract or take out from the records of a court, and send up to the court of exchequer to be enforced; -- said of a forfeited recognizance.
Eternal (a.) Exceedingly great or bad; -- used as a strong intensive.
Evermore (adv.) During eternity; always; forever; for an indefinite period; at all times; -- often used substantively with for.
Everyone (n.) Everybody; -- commonly separated, every one.
Exarillate (a.) Having no aril; -- said of certain seeds, or of the plants producing them.
Exarticulate (a.) Having but one joint; -- said of certain insects.
Extravasate (v. t.) To pass by infiltration or effusion from the normal channel, such as a blood vessel or a lymphatic, into the surrounding tissue; -- said of blood, lymph, etc.
Extrude (v. t.) To shape or form by forcing metal heated to a semi-plastic condition through dies by the use of hydraulic power; as, extruded metal, extruded rods, extruded shapes.
Extrusive (a.) Forced out at the surface; as, extrusive rocks; -- contrasted with intrusive.
Exertion (n.) The act of exerting, or putting into motion or action; the active exercise of any power or faculty; an effort, esp. a laborious or perceptible effort; as, an exertion of strength or power; an exertion of the limbs or of the mind; it is an exertion for him to move, to-day.
Express (a.) To make known the opinions or feelings of; to declare what is in the mind of; to show (one's self); to cause to appear; -- used reflexively.
Expressive (a.) Serving to express, utter, or represent; indicative; communicative; -- followed by of; as, words expressive of his gratitude.
Extraaxillary (a.) Growing outside of the axils; as, an extra-axillary bud.
Extrabranchial (a.) Outside of the branchial arches; -- said of the cartilages thus placed in some fishes.
Extract (n.) A solid preparation obtained by evaporating a solution of a drug, etc., or the fresh juice of a plant; -- distinguished from an abstract. See Abstract, n., 4.
Extract (n.) A peculiar principle once erroneously supposed to form the basis of all vegetable extracts; -- called also the extractive principle.
Extravascular (a.) Outside the vessels; -- said of the substance of all the tissues.
Extravascular (a.) Destitute of vessels; non-vascular.
Extreme (a.) Last; final; conclusive; -- said of time; as, the extreme hour of life.
Extreme (a.) Extended or contracted as much as possible; -- said of intervals; as, an extreme sharp second; an extreme flat forth.
Extreme (n.) Utmost limit or degree that is supposable or tolerable; hence, furthest degree; any undue departure from the mean; -- often in the plural: things at an extreme distance from each other, the most widely different states, etc.; as, extremes of heat and cold, of virtue and vice; extremes meet.
Extrinsic (a.) Not contained in or belonging to a body; external; outward; unessential; -- opposed to intrinsic.
Extrinsic (a.) Attached partly to an organ or limb and partly to some other part/ -- said of certain groups of muscles. Opposed to intrinsic.
Extrorse (a.) Facing outwards, or away from the axis of growth; -- said esp. of anthers occupying the outer side of the filament.
Fair (superl.) Not overcast; cloudless; clear; pleasant; propitious; favorable; -- said of the sky, weather, or wind, etc.; as, a fair sky; a fair day.
Fair (superl.) Free from obstacles or hindrances; unobstructed; unincumbered; open; direct; -- said of a road, passage, etc.; as, a fair mark; in fair sight; a fair view.
Fair (superl.) Without sudden change of direction or curvature; smooth; fowing; -- said of the figure of a vessel, and of surfaces, water Fair (superl.) Characterized by frankness, honesty, impartiality, or candor; open; upright; free from suspicion or bias; equitable; just; -- said of persons, character, or conduct; as, a fair man; fair dealing; a fair statement.
Fair (superl.) Pleasing; favorable; inspiring hope and confidence; -- said of words, promises, etc.
Farrow (a.) Not producing young in a given season or year; -- said only of cows.
February (n.) The second month in the year, said to have been introduced into the Roman calendar by Numa. In common years this month contains twenty-eight days; in the bissextile, or leap year, it has twenty-nine days.
Ferret (n.) To drive or hunt out of a lurking place, as a ferret does the cony; to search out by patient and sagacious efforts; -- often used with out; as, to ferret out a secret.
Ferret (n.) A kind of narrow tape, usually made of woolen; sometimes of cotton or silk; -- called also ferreting.
Ferrotype (n.) A photographic picture taken on an iron plate by a collodion process; -- familiarly called tintype.
Ferrous (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, iron; -- especially used of compounds of iron in which the iron has its lower valence; as, ferrous sulphate.
Fibrinoplastin (n.) An albuminous substance, existing in the blood, which in combination with fibrinogen forms fibrin; -- called also paraglobulin.
Fibrolite (n.) A silicate of alumina, of fibrous or columnar structure. It is like andalusite in composition; -- called also sillimanite, and bucholizite.
Fibrovascular (a.) Containing woody fiber and ducts, as the stems of all flowering plants and ferns; -- opposed to cellular.
Fiorite (n.) A variety of opal occuring in the cavities of volcanic tufa, in smooth and shining globular and botryoidal masses, having a pearly luster; -- so called from Fiora, in Ischia.
Floramour (n.) The plant love-lies-bleeding.
Florideae (n. pl.) A subclass of algae including all the red or purplish seaweeds; the Rhodospermeae of many authors; -- so called from the rosy or florid color of most of the species.
Floriform (a.) Having the form of a flower; flower-shaped.
Fourche (a.) Having the ends forked or branched, and the ends of the branches terminating abruptly as if cut off; -- said of an ordinary, especially of a cross.
Fourdrinier (n.) A machine used in making paper; -- so named from an early inventor of improvements in this class of machinery.
Garrot (n.) The European golden-eye.
Garrulous (a.) Having a loud, harsh note; noisy; -- said of birds; as, the garrulous roller.
Garrupa (n.) One of several species of California market fishes, of the genus Sebastichthys; -- called also rockfish. See Rockfish.
Gibraltar (n.) A kind of candy sweetmeat, or a piece of it; -- called, in full, Gibraltar rock.
Glare (n.) Smooth and bright or translucent; -- used almost exclusively of ice; as, skating on glare ice.
Gnar (n.) A knot or gnarl in wood; hence, a tough, thickset man; -- written also gnarr.
Gnar (v. i.) To gnarl; to snarl; to growl; -- written also gnarr.
Gourd (n.) A fleshy, three-celled, many-seeded fruit, as the melon, pumpkin, cucumber, etc., of the order Cucurbitaceae; and especially the bottle gourd (Lagenaria vulgaris) which occurs in a great variety of forms, and, when the interior part is removed, serves for bottles, dippers, cups, and other dishes.
Gourde (n.) A silver dollar; -- so called in Cuba, Hayti, etc.
Guara (n.) A large-maned wild dog of South America (Canis jubatus) -- named from its cry.
Guarantee (n.) The person to whom a guaranty is made; -- the correlative of guarantor.
Guard (v. t.) An extension of the deck of a vessel beyond the hull; esp., in side-wheel steam vessels, the framework of strong timbers, which curves out on each side beyond the paddle wheel, and protects it and the shaft against collision.
Guardhouse (n.) A building which is occupied by the guard, and in which soldiers are confined for misconduct; hence, a lock-up.
Guerdon (n.) A reward; requital; recompense; -- used in both a good and a bad sense.
Gunroom (n.) An apartment on the after end of the lower gun deck of a ship of war, usually occupied as a messroom by the commissioned officers, except the captain; -- called wardroom in the United States navy.
Hair (n.) A spring device used in a hair-trigger firearm.
Haired (a.) In composition: Having (such) hair; as, red-haired.
Hairpin (n.) A pin, usually forked, or of bent wire, for fastening the hair in place, -- used by women.
Harridan (n.) A worn-out strumpet; a vixenish woman; a hag.
Harrier (n.) One of several species of hawks or buzzards of the genus Circus which fly low and harry small animals or birds, -- as the European marsh harrier (Circus aerunginosus), and the hen harrier (C. cyaneus).
Harrow (interj.) Help! Halloo! An exclamation of distress; a call for succor;-the ancient Norman hue and cry.
Haurient (a.) In pale, with the head in chief; -- said of the figure of a fish, as if rising for air.
Hear (v. t.) To give audience or attention to; to listen to; to heed; to accept the doctrines or advice of; to obey; to examine; to try in a judicial court; as, to hear a recitation; to hear a class; the case will be heard to-morrow.
Heart (n.) The seat of the affections or sensibilities, collectively or separately, as love, hate, joy, grief, courage, and the like; rarely, the seat of the understanding or will; -- usually in a good sense, when no epithet is expressed; the better or lovelier part of our nature; the spring of all our actions and purposes; the seat of moral life and character; the moral affections and character itself; the individual disposition and character; as, a good, tender, loving, bad, hard, or selfish>
Heart (n.) That which resembles a heart in shape; especially, a roundish or oval figure or object having an obtuse point at one end, and at the other a corresponding indentation, -- used as a symbol or representative of the heart.
Hearty (n.) Comrade; boon companion; good fellow; -- a term of familiar address and fellowship among sailors.
Hebrew (n.) The language of the Hebrews; -- one of the Semitic family of languages.
Henry (n.) The unit of electric induction; the induction in a circuit when the electro-motive force induced in this circuit is one volt, while the inducing current varies at the rate of one ampere a second.
Herrnhuter (n.) One of the Moravians; -- so called from the settlement of Herrnhut (the Lord's watch) made, about 1722, by the Moravians at the invitation of Nicholas Lewis, count of Zinzendorf, upon his estate in the circle of Bautzen.
Hoarse (superl.) Harsh; grating; discordant; -- said of any sound.
Hour (n.) The twenty-fourth part of a day; sixty minutes.
Houri (n.) A nymph of paradise; -- so called by the Mohammedans.
Hurricane (n.) A violent storm, characterized by extreme fury and sudden changes of the wind, and generally accompanied by rain, thunder, and lightning; -- especially prevalent in the East and West Indies. Also used figuratively.
Huaracho (n.) A kind of sandal worn by Indians and the lower classes generally; -- usually used in pl.
Hydro (n.) A hydro-aeroplane.
Hydrobiplane (n.) A hydro-aeroplane having two supporting planes.
Hydra (n.) Any small fresh-water hydroid of the genus Hydra, usually found attached to sticks, stones, etc., by a basal sucker.
Hydrachnid (n.) An aquatic mite of the genus Hydrachna. The hydrachnids, while young, are parasitic on fresh-water mussels.
Hydracid (n.) An acid containing hydrogen; -- sometimes applied to distinguish acids like hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and the like, which contain no oxygen, from the oxygen acids or oxacids. See Acid.
Hydriodic (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, hydrogen and iodine; -- said of an acid produced by the combination of these elements.
Hydriodide (n.) A compound of hydriodic acid with a base; -- distinguished from an iodide, in which only the iodine combines with the base.
Hydrobromide (n.) A compound of hydrobromic acid with a base; -- distinguished from a bromide, in which only the bromine unites with the base.
Hydrochloride (n.) A compound of hydrochloric acid with a base; -- distinguished from a chloride, where only chlorine unites with the base.
Hydrocyanide (n.) A compound of hydrocyanic acid with a base; -- distinguished from a cyanide, in which only the cyanogen so combines.
Hydrogenize (v. t.) To combine with hydrogen; to treat with, or subject to the action of, hydrogen; to reduce; -- contrasted with oxidize.
Hydrokinetic (a.) Of or pertaining to the motions of fluids, or the forces which produce or affect such motions; -- opposed to hydrostatic.
Hydromancy (n.) Divination by means of water, -- practiced by the ancients.
Hydromedusa (n.) Any medusa or jellyfish which is produced by budding from a hydroid. They are called also Craspedota, and naked-eyed medusae.
Hydrometeor (n.) A meteor or atmospheric phenomenon dependent upon the vapor of water; -- in the pl., a general term for the whole aqueous phenomena of the atmosphere, as rain, snow, hail, etc.
Hydropathist (n.) One who practices hydropathy; a water-cure doctor.
Hydrothermal (a.) Of or pertaining to hot water; -- used esp. with reference to the action of heated waters in dissolving, redepositing, and otherwise producing mineral changes within the crust of the globe.
Hygrophthalmic (a.) Serving to moisten the eye; -- sometimes applied to the lachrymal ducts.
Iatrochemistry (n.) Chemistry applied to, or used in, medicine; -- used especially with reference to the doctrines in the school of physicians in Flanders, in the 17th century, who held that health depends upon the proper chemical relations of the fluids of the body, and who endeavored to explain the conditions of health or disease by chemical principles.
Iatromathematician (n.) One of a school of physicians in Italy, about the middle of the 17th century, who tried to apply the laws of mechanics and mathematics to the human body, and hence were eager student of anatomy; -- opposed to the iatrochemists.
Imprescriptible (a.) Not derived from, or dependent on, external authority; self-evidencing; obvious.
Impressionism (n.) The theory or method of suggesting an effect or impression without elaboration of the details; -- a disignation of a recent fashion in painting and etching.
Imprest (v. t.) A kind of earnest money; loan; -- specifically, money advanced for some public service, as in enlistment.
Imprint (v. t.) Whatever is impressed or imprinted; the impress or mark left by something; specifically, the name of the printer or publisher (usually) with the time and place of issue, in the title-page of a book, or on any printed sheet.
Improperia (n. pl.) A series of antiphons and responses, expressing the sorrowful remonstrance of our Lord with his people; -- sung on the morning of the Good Friday in place of the usual daily Mass of the Roman ritual.
Inarch (v. t.) To graft by uniting, as a scion, to a stock, without separating either from its root before the union is complete; -- also called to graft by approach.
Inarticulate (a.) Without a hinge; -- said of an order (Inarticulata or Ecardines) of brachiopods.
Increase (v. i.) To become greater or more in size, quantity, number, degree, value, intensity, power, authority, reputation, wealth; to grow; to augment; to advance; -- opposed to decrease.
Increase (v. i.) The period of increasing light, or luminous phase; the waxing; -- said of the moon.
Increated (a.) Uncreated; self-existent.
Increment (n.) Matter added; increase; produce; production; -- opposed to decrement.
Increscent (a.) Increasing; on the increase; -- said of the moon represented as the new moon, with the points turned toward the dexter side.
Inertia (n.) That property of matter by which it tends when at rest to remain so, and when in motion to continue in motion, and in the same straight Inertia (n.) Want of activity; sluggishness; -- said especially of the uterus, when, in labor, its contractions have nearly or wholly ceased.
Inertness (n.) Absence of the power of self-motion; inertia.
Infra (adv.) Below; beneath; under; after; -- often used as a prefix.
Infrabranchial (a.) Below the gills; -- applied to the ventral portion of the pallial chamber in the lamellibranchs.
Infralabial (a.) Below the lower lip; -- said of certain scales of reptiles and fishes.
Infralapsarian (n.) One of that class of Calvinists who consider the decree of election as contemplating the apostasy as past and the elect as being at the time of election in a fallen and guilty state; -- opposed to Supralapsarian. The former considered the election of grace as a remedy for an existing evil; the latter regarded the fall as a part of God's original purpose in regard to men.
Infratrochlear (a.) Below a trochlea, or pulley; -- applied esp. to one of the subdivisions of the trigeminal nerve.
Infringe (v. i.) To encroach; to trespass; -- followed by on or upon; as, to infringe upon the rights of another.
Ingratiate (v. t.) To introduce or commend to the favor of another; to bring into favor; to insinuate; -- used reflexively, and followed by with before the person whose favor is sought.
Ingratiate (v. t.) To recommend; to render easy or agreeable; -- followed by to.
Intramercurial (a.) Between the planet Mercury and the sun; -- as, the hypothetical Vulcan is intramercurial.
Intramundane (a.) Being within the material world; -- opposed to extramundane.
Intrapetiolar (a.) Situated between the petiole and the stem; -- said of the pair of stipules at the base of a petiole when united by those margins next the petiole, thus seeming to form a single stipule between the petiole and the stem or branch; -- often confounded with interpetiolar, from which it differs essentially in meaning.
Intrench (v. i.) To invade; to encroach; to infringe or trespass; to enter on, and take possession of, that which belongs to another; -- usually followed by on or upon; as, the king was charged with intrenching on the rights of the nobles, and the nobles were accused of intrenching on the prerogative of the crown.
Intrinsic (a.) Inward; internal; hence, true; genuine; real; essential; inherent; not merely apparent or accidental; -- opposed to extrinsic; as, the intrinsic value of gold or silver; the intrinsic merit of an action; the intrinsic worth or goodness of a person.
Intrinsic (a.) Included wholly within an organ or limb, as certain groups of muscles; -- opposed to extrinsic.
Introduce (v. t.) To lead or bring in; to conduct or usher in; as, to introduce a person into a drawing-room.
Intromittent (a.) Used in copulation; -- said of the external reproductive organs of the males of many animals, and sometimes of those of the females.
Introspection (n.) A view of the inside or interior; a looking inward; specifically, the act or process of self-examination, or inspection of one's own thoughts and feelings; the cognition which the mind has of its own acts and states; self-consciousness; reflection.
Introspective (a.) Inspecting within; seeing inwardly; capable of, or exercising, inspection; self-conscious.
Introspective (a.) Involving the act or results of conscious knowledge of physical phenomena; -- contrasted with associational.
Isorcin (n.) A crystalIvory (n.) The hard, white, opaque, fine-grained substance constituting the tusks of the elephant. It is a variety of dentine, characterized by the minuteness and close arrangement of the tubes, as also by their double flexure. It is used in manufacturing articles of ornament or utility.
Ivorytype (n.) A picture produced by superposing a very light print, rendered translucent by varnish, and tinted upon the back, upon a stronger print, so as to give the effect of a photograph in natural colors; -- called also hellenotype.
Jerry (a.) Flimsy; jerry-built.
Jinrikisha (n.) A small, two-wheeled, hooded vehicle drawn by one more men.
Journeyman (n.) Formerly, a man hired to work by the day; now, commonly, one who has mastered a handicraft or trade; -- distinguished from apprentice and from master workman.
Karreo (n.) One of the dry table-lands of South Africa, which often rise terracelike to considerable elevations.
Kier (n.) A large tub or vat in which goods are subjected to the action of hot lye or bleaching liquor; -- also called keeve.
Lacrimoso (a.) Plaintive; -- a term applied to a mournful or pathetic movement or style.
Lacrosse (n.) A game of ball, originating among the North American Indians, now the popular field sport of Canada, and played also in England and the United States. Each player carries a long-handled racket, called a "crosse". The ball is not handled but caught with the crosse and carried on it, or tossed from it, the object being to carry it or throw it through one of the goals placed at opposite ends of the field.
Latria (n.) The highest kind of worship, or that paid to God; -- distinguished by the Roman Catholics from dulia, or the inferior worship paid to saints.
Latrine (n.) A privy, or water-closet, esp. in a camp, hospital, etc.
Laurel (n.) An evergreen shrub, of the genus Laurus (L. nobilis), having aromatic leaves of a lanceolate shape, with clusters of small, yellowish white flowers in their axils; -- called also sweet bay.
Laurel (n.) A crown of laurel; hence, honor; distinction; fame; -- especially in the plural; as, to win laurels.
Laurinol (n.) Ordinary camphor; -- so called in allusion to the family name (Lauraceae) of the camphor trees. See Camphor.
Larrikin (n.) A rowdy street loafer; a rowdyish or noisy ill-bred fellow; -- variously applied, as to a street blackguard, a street Arab, a youth given to horse-play, etc.
Learned (a.) Of or pertaining to learning; possessing, or characterized by, learning, esp. scholastic learning; erudite; well-informed; as, a learned scholar, writer, or lawyer; a learned book; a learned theory.
Logrolling (n.) Hence: A combining to assist another in consideration of receiving assistance in return; -- sometimes used of a disreputable mode of accomplishing political schemes or ends.
Lucre (n.) Gain in money or goods; profit; riches; -- often in an ill sense.
Madras (n.) A large silk-and-cotton kerchief, usually of bright colors, such as those often used by negroes for turbans.
Macrobiotic (a.) Long-lived.
Macrocosm (n.) The great world; that part of the universe which is exterior to man; -- contrasted with microcosm, or man. See Microcosm.
Macrocystis (n.) An immensely long blackish seaweed of the Pacific (Macrocystis pyrifera), having numerous almond-shaped air vessels.
Macrognathic (a.) Long-jawed.
Macron (n.) A short, straight, horizontal mark [-], placed over vowels to denote that they are to be pronounced with a long sound; as, a, in dame; /, in s/am, etc.
Macropod (n.) Any one of a group of maioid crabs remarkable for the length of their legs; -- called also spider crab.
Macroscopical (a.) Visible to the unassisted eye; -- as opposed to microscopic.
Macrosporangium (n.) A sporangium or conceptacle containing only large spores; -- opposed to microsporangium. Both are found in the genera Selaginella, Isoctes, and Marsilia, plants remotely allied to ferns.
Macrotous (a.) Large-eared.
Macrozoospore (n.) A large motile spore having four vibratile cilia; -- found in certain green algae.
Madreperl (n.) Mother-of-pearl.
Marron (a.) A paper or pasteboard box or shell, wound about with strong twine, filled with an explosive, and ignited with a fuse, -- used to make a noise like a cannon.
Marrot (n.) The razor-billed auk. See Auk.
Marry (interj.) Indeed ! in truth ! -- a term of asseveration said to have been derived from the practice of swearing by the Virgin Mary.
Matrass (n.) A round-bottomed glass flask having a long neck; a bolthead.
Merrythought (n.) The forked bone of a fowl's breast; -- called also wishbone. See Furculum.
Metronymic (a.) Derived from the name of one's mother, or other female ancestor; as, a metronymic name or appellation. -- A metronymic appellation.
Miargyrite (n.) A mineral of an iron-black color, and very sectile, consisting principally of sulphur, antimony, and silver.
Micraster (n.) A genus of sea urchins, similar to Spatangus, abounding in the chalk formation; -- from the starlike disposal of the ambulacral furrows.
Microbion (n.) A microscopic organism; -- particularly applied to bacteria and especially to pathogenic forms; as, the microbe of fowl cholera.
Microcephalous (a.) Having a small head; having the cranial cavity small; -- opposed to megacephalic.
Microphyllous (a.) Small-leaved.
Microseme (a.) Having the orbital index relatively small; having the orbits broad transversely; -- opposed to megaseme.
Microvolt (n.) A measure of electro-motive force; the millionth part of one volt.
Migrate (v. i.) To pass periodically from one region or climate to another for feeding or breeding; -- said of certain birds, fishes, and quadrupeds.
Milreis (n.) A Portuguese money of account rated in the treasury department of the United States at one dollar and eight cents; also, a Brazilian money of account rated at fifty-four cents and six mills.
Mirror (n.) A looking-glass or a speculum; any glass or polished substance that forms images by the reflection of rays of light.
Misrepresentation (n.) Untrue representation; false or incorrect statement or account; -- usually unfavorable to the thing represented; as, a misrepresentation of a person's motives.
Mitrailleuse (n.) A breech-loading machine gun consisting of a number of barrels fitted together, so arranged that the barrels can be fired simultaneously, or successively, and rapidly.
Moorball (n.) A fresh-water alga (Cladophora Aegagropila) which forms a globular mass.
Morrow (n.) The day following the present; to-morrow.
Moire (a.) Watered; having a watered or clouded appearance; -- as of silk or metals.
Murrhine (a.) Made of the stone or material called by the Romans murrha; -- applied to certain costly vases of great beauty and delicacy used by the luxurious in Rome as wine cups; as, murrhine vases, cups, vessels.
Mydriasis (n.) A long-continued or excessive dilatation of the pupil of the eye.
Nacre (a.) Having the peculiar iridescence of nacre, or mother-of-pearl, or an iridescence resembling it; as, nacre ware.
Nacre (n.) A pearly substance which Narrative (a.) Apt or incNarrow (superl.) Having but a little margin; having barely sufficient space, time, or number, etc.; close; near; -- with special reference to some peril or misfortune; as, a narrow shot; a narrow escape; a narrow majority.
Narrow (superl.) Formed (as a vowel) by a close position of some part of the tongue in relation to the palate; or (according to Bell) by a tense condition of the pharynx; -- distinguished from wide; as e (eve) and / (f/d), etc., from i (ill) and / (f/t), etc. See Guide to Pronunciation, / 13.
Narrow (n.) A narrow passage; esp., a contracted part of a stream, lake, or sea; a strait connecting two bodies of water; -- usually in the plural; as, The Narrows of New York harbor.
Narrowly (adv.) With a little margin or space; by a small distance; hence, closely; hardly; barely; only just; -- often with reference to an avoided danger or misfortune; as, he narrowly escaped.
Near (adv.) Nearly; almost; well-nigh.
Near (a) Close-fisted; parsimonious.
Nearness (n.) The state or quality of being near; -- used in the various senses of the adjective.
Necrophore (n.) Any one of numerous species of beetles of the genus Necrophorus and allied genera; -- called also burying beetle, carrion beetle, sexton beetle.
Necropsy (n.) A post-mortem examination or inspection; an autopsy. See Autopsy.
Necroscopical (a.) Or or relating to post-mortem examinations.
Negrita (n.) A blackish fish (Hypoplectrus nigricans), of the Sea-bass family. It is a native of the West Indies and Florida.
Neurad (adv.) Toward the neural side; -- opposed to haemad.
Neural (a.) relating to the nerves or nervous system; taining to, situated in the region of, or on the side with, the neural, or cerebro-spinal, axis; -- opposed to hemal. As applied to vertebrates, neural is the same as dorsal; as applied to invertebrates it is usually the same as ventral. Cf. Hemal.
Neurine (n.) A poisonous organic base (a ptomaine) formed in the decomposition of protagon with boiling baryta water, and in the putrefraction of proteid matter. It was for a long time considered identical with choNeuroma (n.) A tumor developed on, or connected with, a nerve, esp. one consisting of new-formed nerve fibers.
Neuromere (n.) A metameric segment of the cerebro-spinal nervous system.
Neuron (n.) The brain and spinal cord; the cerebro-spinal axis; myelencephalon.
Neuropodous (a.) Having the limbs on, or directed toward, the neural side, as in most invertebrates; -- opposed to haemapodous.
Neuroptera (n. pl.) An order of hexapod insects having two pairs of large, membranous, net-veined wings. The mouth organs are adapted for chewing. They feed upon other insects, and undergo a complete metamorphosis. The ant-lion, hellgamite, and lacewing fly are examples. Formerly, the name was given to a much more extensive group, including the true Neuroptera and the Pseudoneuroptera.
Neuroskeleton (n.) The deep-seated parts of the vertebrate skeleton which are relation with the nervous axis and locomation.
Nigrosine (n.) A dark blue dyestuff, of the induNitratine (n.) A mineral occurring in transparent crystals, usually of a white, sometimes of a reddish gray, or lemon-yellow, color; native sodium nitrate. It is used in making nitric acid and for manure. Called also soda niter.
Nitroform (n.) A nitro derivative of methane, analogous to chloroform, obtained as a colorless oily or crystalNitromethane (n.) A nitro derivative of methane obtained as a mobile liquid; -- called also nitrocarbol.
Nitrophnol (n.) Any one of a series of nitro derivatives of phenol. They are yellow oily or crystalNorroy (n.) The most northern of the English Kings-at-arms. See King-at-arms, under King.
Overglaze (a.) Applied over the glaze; -- said of enamel paintings, which sometimes are seen to project from the surface of the ware.
Overglaze (a.) Suitable for applying upon the glaze; -- said of vitrifiable colors used in ceramic decoration.
Ochre (n.) A impure earthy ore of iron or a ferruginous clay, usually red (hematite) or yellow (limonite), -- used as a pigment in making paints, etc. The name is also applied to clays of other colors.
Odorous (a.) Having or emitting an odor or scent, esp. a sweet odor; fragrant; sweet-smelling.
Ombre (n.) A large Mediterranean food fish (Umbrina cirrhosa): -- called also umbra, and umbrine.
Operand (n.) The symbol, quantity, or thing upon which a mathematical operation is performed; -- called also faciend.
Operator (n.) The symbol that expresses the operation to be performed; -- called also facient.
Operculated (a.) Having an operculum, or an apparatus for protecting the gills; -- said of shells and of fishes.
Operculigenous (a.) Producing an operculum; -- said of the foot, or part of the foot, of certain mollusks.
Operculum (n.) Any lid-shaped structure closing the aperture of a tube or shell.
Over (prep.) Above, or higher than, in place or position, with the idea of covering; -- opposed to under; as, clouds are over our heads; the smoke rises over the city.
Over (prep.) Across; from side to side of; -- implying a passing or moving, either above the substance or thing, or on the surface of it; as, a dog leaps over a stream or a table.
Over (prep.) Above; -- implying superiority in excellence, dignity, condition, or value; as, the advantages which the Christian world has over the heathen.
Over (prep.) Above in authority or station; -- implying government, direction, care, attention, guard, responsibility, etc.; -- opposed to under.
Over (adv.) From one person or place to another regarded as on the opposite side of a space or barrier; -- used with verbs of motion; as, to sail over to England; to hand over the money; to go over to the enemy.
Over (a.) Upper; covering; higher; superior; also, excessive; too much or too great; -- chiefly used in composition; as, overshoes, overcoat, over-garment, overlord, overwork, overhaste.
Overeat (v. t. & i.) To eat to excess; -- often with a reflexive.
Overhand (a.) Over and over; -- applied to a style of sewing, or to a seam, in which two edges, usually selvedges, are sewed together by passing each stitch over both.
Overmorrow (n.) The day after or following to-morrow.
Overreach (v. i.) To strike the toe of the hind foot against the heel or shoe of the forefoot; -- said of horses.
Overreach (n.) The act of striking the heel of the fore foot with the toe of the hind foot; -- said of horses.
Overrighteous (a.) Excessively righteous; -- usually implying hypocrisy.
Overshoe (n.) A shoe that is worn over another for protection from wet or for extra warmth; esp., an India-rubber shoe; a galoche.
Oversoul (n.) The all-containing soul.
Overture () A composition, for a full orchestra, designed as an introduction to an oratorio, opera, or ballet, or as an independent piece; -- called in the latter case a concert overture.
Padre (n.) A Christian priest or monk; -- used in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Spanish America.
Parr (n.) A young salmon in the stage when it has dark transverse bands; -- called also samlet, skegger, and fingerling.
Parrel (n.) A chimney-piece.
Patrial (a.) Derived from the name of a country, and designating an inhabitant of the country; gentile; -- said of a noun.
Patriarch (n.) The father and ruler of a family; one who governs his family or descendants by paternal right; -- usually applied to heads of families in ancient history, especially in Biblical and Jewish history to those who lived before the time of Moses.
Patron (n.) A guardian saint. -- called also patron saint.
Patronize (v. t.) To assume the air of a patron, or of a superior and protector, toward; -- used in an unfavorable sense; as, to patronize one's equals.
Pearl (n.) A shelly concretion, usually rounded, and having a brilliant luster, with varying tints, found in the mantle, or between the mantle and shell, of certain bivalve mollusks, especially in the pearl oysters and river mussels, and sometimes in certain univalves. It is usually due to a secretion of shelly substance around some irritating foreign particle. Its substance is the same as nacre, or mother-of-pearl. Pearls which are round, or nearly round, and of fine luster, are highly esteem>
Pearl (n.) Nacre, or mother-of-pearl.
Pearl (n.) A light-colored tern.
Pearl (a.) Of or pertaining to pearl or pearls; made of pearls, or of mother-of-pearl.
Pearl (v. t.) To set or adorn with pearls, or with mother-of-pearl. Used also figuratively.
Pearlaceous (a.) Resembling pearl or mother-of-pearl; pearly in quality or appearance.
Peart (a.) Active; lively; brisk; smart; -- often applied to convalescents; as, she is quite peart to-day.
Pedrail (n.) A device intended to replace the wheel of a self-propelled vehicle for use on rough roads and to approximate to the smoothness in running of a wheel on a metal track. The tread consists of a number of rubber shod feet which are connected by ball-and-socket joints to the ends of sliding spokes. Each spoke has attached to it a small roller which in its turn runs under a short pivoted rail controlled by a powerful set of springs. This arrangement permits the feet to accomodate themse>
Perron (n.) An out-of-door flight of steps, as in a garden, leading to a terrace or to an upper story; -- usually applied to mediaevel or later structures of some architectural pretensions.
Pharisaical (a.) Addicted to external forms and ceremonies; making a show of religion without the spirit of it; ceremonial; formal; hypocritical; self-righteous.
Pharisaism (n.) Rigid observance of external forms of religion, without genuine piety; hypocrisy in religion; a censorious, self-righteous spirit in matters of morals or manners.
Pharmacognosis (n.) That branch of pharmacology which treats of unprepared medicines or simples; -- called also pharmacography, and pharmacomathy.
Pharyngobranchial (a.) Of or pertaining to the pharynx and the branchiae; -- applied especially to the dorsal elements in the branchial arches of fishes. See Pharyngeal.
Phormium (n.) A genus of liliaceous plants, consisting of one species (Phormium tenax). See Flax-plant.
Picromel (n.) A colorless viscous substance having a bitter-sweet taste.
Pierce (v. i.) To enter; to penetrate; to make a way into or through something, as a pointed instrument does; -- used literally and figuratively.
Piercel (n.) A kind of gimlet for making vents in casks; -- called also piercer.
Piercing (a.) Forcibly entering, or adapted to enter, at or by a point; perforating; penetrating; keen; -- used also figuratively; as, a piercing instrument, or thrust.
Pluroderes (n. pl.) A group of fresh-water turtles in which the neck can not be retracted, but is bent to one side, for protection. The matamata is an example.
Podrida (n.) A miscellaneous dish of meats. See Olla-podrida.
Poor (superl.) Destitute of fertility; exhausted; barren; sterile; -- said of land; as, poor soil.
Poor (superl.) Worthy of pity or sympathy; -- used also sometimes as a term of endearment, or as an expression of modesty, and sometimes as a word of contempt.
Poor (superl.) Free from self-assertion; not proud or arrogant; meek.
Poor (n.) A small European codfish (Gadus minutus); -- called also power cod.
Prerogative (n.) An exclusive or peculiar privilege; prior and indefeasible right; fundamental and essential possession; -- used generally of an official and hereditary right which may be asserted without question, and for the exercise of which there is no responsibility or accountability as to the fact and the manner of its exercise.
Pteroceras (n.) A genus of large marine gastropods having the outer border of the lip divided into lobes; -- called also scorpion shell.
Pterosauria (n. pl.) An extinct order of flying reptiles of the Mesozoic age; the pterodactyls; -- called also Pterodactyli, and Ornithosauria.
Pteryla (n.) One of the definite areas of the skin of a bird on which feathers grow; -- contrasted with apteria.
Pyrrhotite (n.) A bronze-colored mineral, of metallic luster. It is a sulphide of iron, and is remarkable for being attracted by the magnet. Called also magnetic pyrites.
Quarantine (n.) A space of forty days; -- used of Lent.
Quarrel (n.) An arrow for a crossbow; -- so named because it commonly had a square head.
Quarrel (n.) A square or lozenge-shaped paving tile.
Quarrel (n.) A four-sided cutting tool or chisel having a diamond-shaped end.
Quartation (n.) The act, process, or result (in the process of parting) of alloying a button of nearly pure gold with enough silver to reduce the fineness so as to allow acids to attack and remove all metals except the gold; -- called also inquartation. Compare Parting.
Quartenylic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid of the acrylic acid series, metameric with crotonic acid, and obtained as a colorless liquid; -- so called from having four carbon atoms in the molecule. Called also isocrotonic acid.
Quarter (n.) The fourth of a hundred-weight, being 25 or 28 pounds, according as the hundredweight is reckoned at 100 or 112 pounds.
Quarter (n.) The after-part of a vessel's side, generally corresponding in extent with the quarter-deck; also, the part of the yardarm outside of the slings.
Quarter (v. t.) A small upright timber post, used in partitions; -- in the United States more commonly called stud.
Quarter (v. t.) The fourth part of the distance from one point of the compass to another, being the fourth part of 11? 15', that is, about 2? 49'; -- called also quarter point.
Quarter (v. t.) A station at which officers and men are posted in battle; -- usually in the plural.
Quarter (v. t.) Place of lodging or temporary residence; shelter; entertainment; -- usually in the plural.
Quarterhung (a.) Having trunnions the axes of which lie below the bore; -- said of a cannon.
Quartering (a.) Coming from a point well abaft the beam, but not directly astern; -- said of waves or any moving object.
Quarterly (adv.) In quarters, or quarterings; as, to bear arms quarterly; in four or more parts; -- said of a shield thus divided by Quartern (n.) A loaf of bread weighing about four pounds; -- called also quartern loaf.
Quarterstaff (n.) A long and stout staff formerly used as a weapon of defense and offense; -- so called because in holding it one hand was placed in the middle, and the other between the middle and the end.
Quartzite (n.) Massive quartz occurring as a rock; a metamorphosed sandstone; -- called also quartz rock.
Quartzoid (n.) A form of crystal common with quartz, consisting of two six-sided pyramids, base to base.
Quercitin (n.) A yellow crystalQuercitrin (n.) A glucoside extracted from the bark of the oak (Quercus) as a bitter citron-yellow crystalQuern (n.) A mill for grinding grain, the upper stone of which was turned by hand; -- used before the invention of windmills and watermills.
Quire (n.) A collection of twenty-four sheets of paper of the same size and quality, unfolded or having a single fold; one twentieth of a ream.
Quirk (n.) A piece of ground taken out of any regular ground plot or floor, so as to make a court, yard, etc.; -- sometimes written quink.
Quartered (a.) Quarter-sawed; -- said of timber, commonly oak.
Ramrod (n.) The rod used in ramming home the charge in a muzzle-loading firearm.
Rear (n.) The back or hindmost part; that which is behind, or last in order; -- opposed to front.
Recreant (a.) Crying for mercy, as a combatant in the trial by battle; yielding; cowardly; mean-spirited; craven.
Recreant (n.) One who yields in combat, and begs for mercy; a mean-spirited, cowardly wretch.
Refracted (a.) Bent backward angularly, as if half-broken; as, a refracted stem or leaf.
Refraction (n.) The change in the direction of a ray of light, and, consequently, in the apparent position of a heavenly body from which it emanates, arising from its passage through the earth's atmosphere; -- hence distinguished as atmospheric refraction, or astronomical refraction.
Refractory (a.) Resisting ordinary treatment; difficult of fusion, reduction, or the like; -- said especially of metals and the like, which do not readily yield to heat, or to the hammer; as, a refractory ore.
Refrigerant (n.) That which makes to be cool or cold; specifically, a medicine or an application for allaying fever, or the symptoms of fever; -- used also figuratively.
Regrate (v. t.) To buy in large quantities, as corn, provisions, etc., at a market or fair, with the intention of selling the same again, in or near the same place, at a higher price, -- a practice which was formerly treated as a public offense.
Representative (a.) Similar in general appearance, structure, and habits, but living in different regions; -- said of certain species and varieties.
Retractor (n.) In breech-loading firearms, a device for withdrawing a cartridge shell from the barrel.
Retrieve (n.) The recovery of game once sprung; -- an old sporting term.
Retrocedent (a.) Disposed or likely to retrocede; -- said of diseases which go from one part of the body to another, as the gout.
Retrograde (a.) Tending or moving backward; having a backward course; contrary; as, a retrograde motion; -- opposed to progressive.
Retrospective (a.) Looking backward; contemplating things past; -- opposed to prospective; as, a retrospective view.
Retrousse (a.) Turned up; -- said of a pug nose.
Retrousse (a.) Turned up; -- said of a pug nose.
Rubric (n.) The title of a statute; -- so called as being anciently written in red letters.
Rubric (n.) The directions and rules for the conduct of service, formerly written or printed in red; hence, also, an ecclesiastical or episcopal injunction; -- usually in the plural.
Sacrament (n.) The oath of allegiance taken by Roman soldiers; hence, a sacred ceremony used to impress an obligation; a solemn oath-taking; an oath.
Sadr (n.) A plant of the genus Ziziphus (Z. lotus); -- so called by the Arabs of Barbary, who use its berries for food. See Lotus (b).
Safranin (n.) An orange-red dyestuff extracted from the saffron.
Safranin (n.) A red dyestuff extracted from the safflower, and formerly used in dyeing wool, silk, and cotton pink and scarlet; -- called also Spanish red, China lake, and carthamin.
Safranin (n.) An orange-red dyestuff prepared from certain nitro compounds of creosol, and used as a substitute for the safflower dye.
Safranine (n.) An orange-red nitrogenous dyestuff produced artificially by oxidizing certain aniScorch (v. i.) To ride or drive at great, usually at excessive, speed; -- applied chiefly to automobilists and bicyclists. [Colloq.]
Scarabee (n.) A stylized representation of a scarab beetle in stone or faience; -- a symbol of resurrection, used by the ancient Egyptians as an ornament or a talisman, and in modern times used in jewelry, usually by engraving designs on cabuchon stones. Also used attributively; as, a scarab bracelet [a bracelet containing scarabs]; a scarab [the carved stone itelf].
Scarce (superl.) Scantily supplied (with); deficient (in); -- with of.
Scarlet (n.) A deep bright red tinged with orange or yellow, -- of many tints and shades; a vivid or bright red color.
Scarus (n.) A Mediterranean food fish (Sparisoma scarus) of excellent quality and highly valued by the Romans; -- called also parrot fish.
Schreibersite (n.) A mineral occurring in steel-gray flexible folia. It contains iron, nickel, and phosphorus, and is found only in meteoric iron.
Score (n.) A distance of twenty yards; -- a term used in ancient archery and gunnery.
Score (n.) The original and entire draught, or its transcript, of a composition, with the parts for all the different instruments or voices written on staves one above another, so that they can be read at a glance; -- so called from the bar, which, in its early use, was drawn through all the parts.
Scorifier (n.) One who, or that which, scorifies; specifically, a small flat bowl-shaped cup used in the first heating in assaying, to remove the earth and gangue, and to concentrate the gold and silver in a lead button.
Scorodite (n.) A leek-green or brownish mineral occurring in orthorhombic crystals. It is a hydrous arseniate of iron.
Scorpio (n.) The eighth sign of the zodiac, which the sun enters about the twenty-third day of October, marked thus [/] in almanacs.
Scorpion (n.) Any one of numerous species of pulmonate arachnids of the order Scorpiones, having a suctorial mouth, large claw-bearing palpi, and a caudal sting.
Serrula (n.) The red-breasted merganser.
Sexradiate (a.) Having six rays; -- said of certain sponge spicules. See Illust. of Spicule.
Sforzato (a.) Forcing or forced; -- a direction placed over a note, to signify that it must be executed with peculiar emphasis and force; -- marked fz (an abbreviation of forzando), sf, sfz, or /.
Sharpie (n.) A long, sharp, flat-bottomed boat, with one or two masts carrying a triangular sail. They are often called Fair Haven sharpies, after the place on the coast of Connecticut where they originated.
Sharpsaw (n.) The great titmouse; -- so called from its harsh call notes.
Sherbet (n.) A preparation of bicarbonate of soda, tartaric acid, sugar, etc., variously flavored, for making an effervescing drink; -- called also sherbet powder.
Sherd (n.) A fragment; -- now used only in composition, as in potsherd. See Shard.
Sherif (n.) A member of an Arab princely family descended from Mohammed through his son-in-law Ali and daughter Fatima. The Grand Shereef is the governor of Mecca.
Sherry (n.) A Spanish light-colored dry wine, made in Andalusia. As prepared for commerce it is colored a straw color or a deep amber by mixing with it cheap wine boiled down.
Shiraz (n.) A kind of Persian wine; -- so called from the place whence it is brought.
Shirk (v. t.) To avoid; to escape; to neglect; -- implying unfaithfulness or fraud; as, to shirk duty.
Shirr (n.) A series of close parallel runnings which are drawn up so as to make the material between them set full by gatherings; -- called also shirring, and gauging.
Shirred (a.) Broken into an earthen dish and baked over the fire; -- said of eggs.
Shirt (n.) A loose under-garment for the upper part of the body, made of cotton, Shore (v. t.) To support by a shore or shores; to prop; -- usually with up; as, to shore up a building.
Short (superl.) Insufficiently provided; inadequately supplied; scantily furnished; lacking; not coming up to a resonable, or the ordinary, standard; -- usually with of; as, to be short of money.
Short (superl.) Less important, efficaceous, or powerful; not equal or equivalent; less (than); -- with of.
Short (adv.) Not prolonged, or relatively less prolonged, in utterance; -- opposed to long, and applied to vowels or to syllables. In English, the long and short of the same letter are not, in most cases, the long and short of the same sound; thus, the i in ill is the short sound, not of i in isle, but of ee in eel, and the e in pet is the short sound of a in pate, etc. See Quantity, and Guide to Pronunciation, //22, 30.
Shortclothes (n.) Coverings for the legs of men or boys, consisting of trousers which reach only to the knees, -- worn with long stockings.
Shorthead (n.) A sucking whale less than one year old; -- so called by sailors.
Skirlcock (n.) The missel thrush; -- so called from its harsh alarm note.
Skirling (n.) A small trout or salmon; -- a name used loosely.
Sporophyte (n.) In plants exhibiting alternation of generations, the generation which bears asexual spores; -- opposed to gametophyte. It is not clearly differentiated in the life cycle of the lower plants.
Sporozoite (n.) In certain Sporozoa, a small active, usually elongate, sickle-shaped or somewhat amoeboid spore, esp. one of those produced by division of the passive spores into which the zygote divides. The sporozoites reproduce asexually.
Smart (v. i.) To feel a lively, pungent local pain; -- said of some part of the body as the seat of irritation; as, my finger smarts; these wounds smart.
Smarten (v. t.) To make smart or spruce; -- usually with up.
Snort (v. i.) To force the air with violence through the nose, so as to make a noise, as do high-spirited horsed in prancing and play.
Snorter (n.) The wheather; -- so called from its cry.
Socratical (a.) Of or pertaining to Socrates, the Grecian sage and teacher. (b. c. 469-399), or to his manner of teaching and philosophizing.
Sorrento work () Ornamental work, mostly carved in olivewood, decorated with inlay, made at or near Sorrento, Italy. Hence, more rarely, jig-saw work and the like done anywhere.
Sorry (a.) Grieved for the loss of some good; pained for some evil; feeling regret; -- now generally used to express light grief or affliction, but formerly often used to express deeper feeling.
Sparada (n.) A small California surf fish (Micrometrus aggregatus); -- called also shiner.
Sparoid (a.) Of or pertaining to the Sparidae, a family of spinous-finned fishes which includes the scup, sheepshead, and sea bream.
Sparse (superl.) Placed irregularly and distantly; scattered; -- applied to branches, leaves, peduncles, and the like.
Sparteine (n.) A narcotic alkaloid extracted from the tops of the common broom (Cytisus scoparius, formerly Spartium scoparium), as a colorless oily liquid of aniSparth (n.) An Anglo-Saxon battle-ax, or halberd.
Spermatogenous (a.) Sperm-producing.
Spermatophorous (a.) Producing seed, or sperm; seminiferous; as, the so-called spermatophorous cells.
Spermatozoid (n.) The male germ cell in animals and plants, the essential element in fertilization; a microscopic animalcule-like particle, usually provided with one or more cilia by which it is capable of active motion. In animals, the familiar type is that of a small, more or less ovoid head, with a delicate threadlike cilium, or tail. Called also spermatozoon. In plants the more usual term is antherozoid.
Spermoderm (n.) The covering of a seed; -- sometimes limited to the outer coat or testa.
Spermophyte (n.) Any plant which produces true seeds; -- a term recently proposed to replace ph/nogam.
Sperrylite (n.) An arsenide of platinum occuring in grains and minute isometric crystals of tin-white color. It is found near Sudbury, Ontario Canada, and is the only known compound of platinum occuring in nature.
Spirant (n.) A term used differently by different authorities; -- by some as equivalent to fricative, -- that is, as including all the continuous consonants, except the nasals m, n, ng; with the further exception, by others, of the liquids r, l, and the semivowels w, y; by others limited to f, v, th surd and sonant, and the sound of German ch, -- thus excluding the sibilants, as well as the nasals, liquids, and semivowels. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 197-208.
Spirillum (n.) A genus of common motile microorganisms (Spirobacteria) having the form of spiral-shaped filaments. One species is said to be the cause of relapsing fever.
Spirit (n.) Temper or disposition of mind; mental condition or disposition; intellectual or moral state; -- often in the plural; as, to be cheerful, or in good spirits; to be downhearted, or in bad spirits.
Spirit (n.) Intent; real meaning; -- opposed to the letter, or to formal statement; also, characteristic quality, especially such as is derived from the individual genius or the personal character; as, the spirit of an enterprise, of a document, or the like.
Spirit (n.) Any liquid produced by distillation; especially, alcohol, the spirits, or spirit, of wine (it having been first distilled from wine): -- often in the plural.
Spirit (v. t.) To animate with vigor; to excite; to encourage; to inspirit; as, civil dissensions often spirit the ambition of private men; -- sometimes followed by up.
Spirit (v. t.) To convey rapidly and secretly, or mysteriously, as if by the agency of a spirit; to kidnap; -- often with away, or off.
Spiritoso (a. & adv.) Spirited; spiritedly; -- a direction to perform a passage in an animated, lively manner.
Spiritual (a.) Of or pertaining to the soul or its affections as influenced by the Spirit; controlled and inspired by the divine Spirit; proceeding from the Holy Spirit; pure; holy; divine; heavenly-minded; -- opposed to carnal.
Spiritualism (n.) The doctrine, in opposition to the materialists, that all which exists is spirit, or soul -- that what is called the external world is either a succession of notions impressed on the mind by the Deity, as maintained by Berkeley, or else the mere educt of the mind itself, as taught by Fichte.
Spirituality (n.) The quality or state of being spiritual; incorporeality; heavenly-mindedness.
Spiritualize (v. t.) To give a spiritual meaning to; to take in a spiritual sense; -- opposed to literalize.
Spiritualness (n.) The quality or state of being spiritual or spiritual-minded; spirituality.
Sporades (n. pl.) Stars not included in any constellation; -- called also informed, or unformed, stars.
Sport (v. i.) To assume suddenly a new and different character from the rest of the plant or from the type of the species; -- said of a bud, shoot, plant, or animal. See Sport, n., 6.
Sport (v. t.) To divert; to amuse; to make merry; -- used with the reciprocal pronoun.
Sport (v. t.) To give utterance to in a sportive manner; to throw out in an easy and copious manner; -- with off; as, to sport off epigrams.
Spurge (v. t.) To emit foam; to froth; -- said of the emission of yeast from beer in course of fermentation.
Star (n.) Specifically, a radiated mark in writing or printing; an asterisk [thus, *]; -- used as a reference to a note, or to fill a blank where something is omitted, etc.
Starboard (v. t.) That side of a vessel which is on the right hand of a person who stands on board facing the bow; -- opposed to larboard, or port.
Starboard (a.) Pertaining to the right-hand side of a ship; being or lying on the right side; as, the starboard quarter; starboard tack.
Stargaser (n.) Any one of several species of spiny-rayed marine fishes belonging to Uranoscopus, Astroscopus, and allied genera, of the family Uranoscopidae. The common species of the Eastern United States are Astroscopus anoplus, and A. guttatus. So called from the position of the eyes, which look directly upward.
Stargasing (n.) Hence, absent-mindedness; abstraction.
Starling (n.) A structure of piles driven round the piers of a bridge for protection and support; -- called also sterling.
Starmonger (n.) A fortune teller; an astrologer; -- used in contempt.
Starnose (n.) A curious American mole (Condylura cristata) having the nose expanded at the end into a stellate disk; -- called also star-nosed mole.
Start (n.) The beginning, as of a journey or a course of action; first motion from a place; act of setting out; the outset; -- opposed to finish.
Start (v. i.) The curved or incStartish (a.) Apt to start; skittish; shy; -- said especially of a horse.
Startlish (a.) Easily startled; apt to start; startish; skittish; -- said especially of a hourse.
Starwort (n.) A small plant of the genus Stellaria, having star-shaped flowers; star flower; chickweed.
Stercobilin (n.) A coloring matter found in the faeces, a product of the alteration of the bile pigments in the intestinal canal, -- identical with hydrobilirubin.
Stereobate (n.) The lower part or basement of a building or pedestal; -- used loosely for several different forms of basement.
Stereometry (n.) The art of measuring and computing the cubical contents of bodies and figures; -- distinguished from planimetry.
Stereotype (n.) A plate forming an exact faximile of a page of type or of an engraving, used in printing books, etc.; specifically, a plate with type-metal face, used for printing.
Sterling (a.) Belonging to, or relating to, the standard British money of account, or the British coinage; as, a pound sterling; a shilling sterling; a penny sterling; -- now chiefly applied to the lawful money of England; but sterling cost, sterling value, are used.
Stern (v. t.) The tail of an animal; -- now used only of the tail of a dog.
Sterned (a.) Having a stern of a particular shape; -- used in composition; as, square-sterned.
Sternson (n.) The end of a ship's keelson, to which the sternpost is bolted; -- called also stern knee.
Stirrup (v. i.) A kind of ring, or bent piece of metal, wood, leather, or the like, horizontal in one part for receiving the foot of a rider, and attached by a strap to the saddle, -- used to assist a person in mounting a horse, and to enable him to sit steadily in riding, as well as to relieve him by supporting a part of the weight of the body.
Storm (v. i.) To blow with violence; also, to rain, hail, snow, or the like, usually in a violent manner, or with high wind; -- used impersonally; as, it storms. Stoup (n.) A basin at the entrance of Roman Catholic churches for containing the holy water with which those who enter, dipping their fingers in it, cross themselves; -- called also holy-water stoup.
Styrolene (n.) An unsaturated hydrocarbon, C8H8, obtained by the distillation of storax, by the decomposition of cinnamic acid, and by the condensation of acetylene, as a fragrant, aromatic, mobile liquid; -- called also phenyl ethylene, vinyl benzene, styrol, styrene, and cinnamene.
Styrone (n.) A white crystalStyryl (n.) A hypothetical radical found in certain derivatives of styrolene and cinnamic acid; -- called also cinnyl, or cinnamyl.
Subriguous (a.) Watered or wet beneath; well-watered.
Supra (adv.) Over; above; before; also, beyond; besides; -- much used as a prefix.
Suprabranchial (a.) Situated above the branchiae; -- applied especially to the upper division of the gill cavity of bivalve mollusks.
Suprachoroidal (a.) Situated above the choroid; -- applied to the layer of the choroid coat of the eyeball next to the sclerotic.
Supraclavicle (n.) A bone which usually connects the clavicle with the post-temporal in the pectorial arch of fishes.
Supraglotic (a.) Situated above the glottis; -- applied to that part of the cavity of the larynx above the true vocal cords.
Suprahepatic (a.) Situated over, or on the dorsal side of, the liver; -- applied to the branches of the hepatic veins.
Supraocular (a.) Above the eyes; -- said of certain scales of fishes and reptiles.
Surrender (v. t.) To yield to any influence, emotion, passion, or power; -- used reflexively; as, to surrender one's self to grief, to despair, to indolence, or to sleep.
Surrey (n.) A four-wheeled pleasure carriage, (commonly two-seated) somewhat like a phaeton, but having a straight bottom.
Swarm (v. i.) To collect, and depart from a hive by flight in a body; -- said of bees; as, bees swarm in warm, clear days in summer.
Swarmspore (n.) One of the minute flagellate germs produced by the sporulation of a protozoan; -- called also zoospore.
Swartback (n.) The black-backed gull (Larus marinus); -- called also swarbie.
Taurine (n.) A body occurring in small quantity in the juices of muscle, in the lungs, and elsewhere, but especially in the bile, where it is found as a component part of taurocholic acid, from which it can be prepared by decomposition of the acid. It crystallizes in colorless, regular six-sided prisms, and is especially characterized by containing both nitrogen and sulphur, being chemically amido-isethionic acid, C2H7NSO3.
Taurus (n.) The Bull; the second in order of the twelve signs of the zodiac, which the sun enters about the 20th of April; -- marked thus [/] in almanacs.
Taurus (n.) A zodiacal constellation, containing the well-known clusters called the Pleiades and the Hyades, in the latter of which is situated the remarkably bright Aldebaran.
Taurid (n.) Any of a group of meteors appearing November 20-23; -- so called because they appear to radiate from a point in Taurus.
Tear (n.) Something in the form of a transparent drop of fluid matter; also, a solid, transparent, tear-shaped drop, as of some balsams or resins.
Terrane (n.) A group of rocks having a common age or origin; -- nearly equivalent to formation, but used somewhat less comprehensively.
Terrier (n.) One of a breed of small dogs, which includes several distinct subbreeds, some of which, such as the Skye terrier and Yorkshire terrier, have long hair and drooping ears, while others, at the English and the black-and-tan terriers, have short, close, smooth hair and upright ears.
Tetrabasic (a.) Capable of neutralizing four molecules of a monacid base; having four hydrogen atoms capable of replacement by bases; quadribasic; -- said of certain acids; thus, normal silicic acid, Si(OH)4, is a tetrabasic acid.
Tetracid (a.) Capable of neutralizing four molecules of a monobasic acid; having four hydrogen atoms capable of replacement ba acids or acid atoms; -- said of certain bases; thus, erythrine, C4H6(OH)4, is a tetracid alcohol.
Tetradecane (n.) A light oily hydrocarbon, C14H30, of the marsh-gas series; -- so called from the fourteen carbon atoms in the molecule.
Tetradymite (n.) A telluride of bismuth. It is of a pale steel-gray color and metallic luster, and usually occurs in foliated masses. Called also telluric bismuth.
Tetrahexahedron (n.) A solid in the isometric system, bounded by twenty-four equal triangular faces, four corresponding to each face of the cube.
Tetrakosane (n.) A hydrocarbon, C24H50, resembling paraffin, and like it belonging to the marsh-gas series; -- so called from having twenty-four atoms of carbon in the molecule.
Tetramerous (a.) Having four joints in each of the tarsi; -- said of certain insects.
Tetramethylene (n.) A hypothetical hydrocarbon, C4H8, analogous to trimethylene, and regarded as the base of well-known series or derivatives.
Tetrastyle (a.) Having four columns in front; -- said of a temple, portico, or colonnade.
Tetraxile (a.) Having four branches diverging at right angles; -- said of certain spicules of sponges.
Tetrinic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a complex ketonic acid, C5H6O3, obtained as a white crystalTetrol (n.) A hypothetical hydrocarbon, C4H4, analogous to benzene; -- so called from the four carbon atoms in the molecule.
Tetryl (n.) Butyl; -- so called from the four carbon atoms in the molecule.
Tetrylene (n.) Butylene; -- so called from the four carbon atoms in the molecule.
Tharos (n.) A small American butterfly (Phycoides tharos) having the upper surface of the wings variegated with orange and black, the outer margins black with small white crescents; -- called also pearl crescent.
Theretofore (adv.) Up to that time; before then; -- correlative with heretofore.
Therf (a.) Not fermented; unleavened; -- said of bread, loaves, etc.
Theriaca (n.) An ancient composition esteemed efficacious against the effects of poison; especially, a certain compound of sixty-four drugs, prepared, pulverized, and reduced by means of honey to an electuary; -- called also theriaca Andromachi, and Venice treacle.
Thermetograph (n.) A self-registering thermometer, especially one that registers the maximum and minimum during long periods.
Thermidor (n.) The eleventh month of the French republican calendar, -- commencing July 19, and ending August 17. See the Note under Vendemiaire.
Thermifugine (n.) An artificial alkaloid of complex composition, resembling thalThermostat (n.) A self-acting apparatus for regulating temperature by the unequal expansion of different metals, liquids, or gases by heat, as in opening or closing the damper of a stove, or the like, as the heat becomes greater or less than is desired.
Thermosystaltic (a.) Influenced in its contraction by heat or cold; -- said of a muscle.
Third (a.) Next after the second; coming after two others; -- the ordinal of three; as, the third hour in the day.
Thirteenth (a.) Next in order after the twelfth; the third after the tenth; -- the ordinal of thirteen; as, the thirteenth day of the month.
Thirtieth (a.) Next in order after the twenty-ninth; the tenth after the twentieth; -- the ordinal of thirty; as, the thirtieth day of the month.
Thirty (a.) Being three times ten; consisting of one more than twenty-nine; twenty and ten; as, the month of June consists of thirty days.
Thoria (n.) A rare white earthy substance, consisting of the oxide of thorium; -- formerly called also thorina.
Thorite (n.) A mineral of a brown to black color, or, as in the variety orangite, orange-yellow. It is essentially a silicate of thorium.
Thorium (n.) A metallic element found in certain rare minerals, as thorite, pyrochlore, monazite, etc., and isolated as an infusible gray metallic powder which burns in the air and forms thoria; -- formerly called also thorinum. Symbol Th. Atomic weight 232.0.
Thorn (n.) A hard and sharp-pointed projection from a woody stem; usually, a branch so transformed; a spine.
Thorn (n.) The name of the Anglo-Saxon letter /, capital form /. It was used to represent both of the sounds of English th, as in thin, then. So called because it was the initial letter of thorn, a spine.
Thorough bass () The representation of chords by figures placed under the base; figured bass; basso continuo; -- sometimes used as synonymous with harmony.
Thoroughgoing (a.) Going all lengths; extreme; thoroughplaced; -- less common in this sense.
Thorpe (n.) A group of houses in the country; a small village; a hamlet; a dorp; -- now chiefly occurring in names of places and persons; as, Althorp, Mablethorpe.
Thurible (n.) A censer of metal, for burning incense, having various forms, held in the hand or suspended by chains; -- used especially at mass, vespers, and other solemn services.
Thuringite (n.) A mineral occurring as an aggregation of minute scales having an olive-green color and pearly luster. It is a hydrous silicate of aluminia and iron.
Thyroid (a.) Shaped like an oblong shield; shield-shaped; as, the thyroid cartilage.
Thyrsus (n.) A species of inflorescence; a dense panicle, as in the lilac and horse-chestnut.
Thermoanaesthesia (n.) Alt. of -anesthesia
Thermophilic (a.) Heat-loving; -- applied esp. to certain bacteria.
Thermostable (a.) Capable of being heated to or somewhat above 55? C. without loss of special properties; -- said of immune substances, etc.
Thermotank (n.) A tank containing pipes through which circulates steam, water, air, or the like, for heating or cooling; -- used in some heating and ventilation systems.
Tierce (n.) A cask whose content is one third of a pipe; that is, forty-two wine gallons; also, a liquid measure of forty-two wine, or thirty-five imperial, gallons.
Tierce (n.) A sequence of three playing cards of the same suit. Tierce of ace, king, queen, is called tierce-major.
Tierce (a.) Divided into three equal parts of three different tinctures; -- said of an escutcheon.
TourmaTurreted (a.) Furnished with a turret or turrets; specifically (Zool.), having the whorls somewhat flattened on the upper side and often ornamented by spines or tubercles; -- said of certain spiral shells.
Ultramontanism (n.) The principles of those within the Roman Catholic Church who maintain extreme views favoring the pope's supremacy; -- so used by those living north of the Alps in reference to the Italians; -- rarely used in an opposite sense, as referring to the views of those living north of the Alps and opposed to the papal claims. Cf. Gallicanism.
Ultraviolet (a.) Lying outside the visible spectrum at its violet end; -- said of rays more refrangible than the extreme violet rays of the spectrum.
Umbra (n.) The conical shadow projected from a planet or satellite, on the side opposite to the sun, within which a spectator could see no portion of the sun's disk; -- used in contradistinction from penumbra. See Penumbra.
Umbra (n.) The fainter part of a sun spot; -- now more commonly called penumbra.
Umbra (n.) Any one of several species of sciaenoid food fishes of the genus Umbrina, especially the Mediterranean species (U. cirrhosa), which is highly esteemed as a market fish; -- called also ombre, and umbrine.
Umbraculiform (a.) Having the form of anything that serves to shade, as a tree top, an umbrella, and the like; specifically (Bot.), having the form of an umbrella; umbrella-shaped.
Umbrella (n.) Any marine tectibranchiate gastropod of the genus Umbrella, having an umbrella-shaped shell; -- called also umbrella shell.
Unbred (a.) Not taught or trained; -- with to.
Unbred (a.) Not well-bred; ill-bred.
Uncreate (a.) Uncreated; self-existent.
Uncreated (a.) Not existing by creation; self-existent; eternal; as, God is an uncreated being.
Undreamt (a.) Not dreamed, or dreamed of; not th/ught of; not imagined; -- often followed by of.
Undress (n.) An authorized habitual dress of officers and soldiers, but not full-dress uniform.
Untressed (a.) Not tied up in tresses; unarranged; -- said of the hair.
Upbraid (v. t.) To charge with something wrong or disgraceful; to reproach; to cast something in the teeth of; -- followed by with or for, and formerly of, before the thing imputed.
Upbraid (v. t.) To object or urge as a matter of reproach; to cast up; -- with to before the person.
Uppricked (a.) Upraised; erect; -- said of the ears of an animal.
Usurpation (n.) The act of usurping, or of seizing and enjoying; an authorized, arbitrary assumption and exercise of power, especially an infringing on the rights of others; specifically, the illegal seizure of sovereign power; -- commonly used with of, also used with on or upon; as, the usurpation of a throne; the usurpation of the supreme power.
Vairy (n.) Charged with vair; variegated with shield-shaped figures. See Vair.
Vibrator (n.) An ink-distributing roller in a printing machine, having an additional vibratory motion.
Vierkleur (n.) The four-colored flag of the South African Republic, or Transvaal, -- red, white, blue, and green.
Vitric (a.) Having the nature and qualities of glass; glasslike; -- distinguished from ceramic.
Vitrina (n.) A genus of terrestrial gastropods, having transparent, very thin, and delicate shells, -- whence the name.
Vitriol (n.) Sulphuric acid; -- called also oil of vitriol. So called because first made by the distillation of green vitriol. See Sulphuric acid, under Sulphuric.
Warrin (n.) An Australian lorikeet (Trichoglossus multicolor) remarkable for the variety and brilliancy of its colors; -- called also blue-bellied lorikeet, and blue-bellied parrot.
Wear (v. i.) To endure or suffer use; to last under employment; to bear the consequences of use, as waste, consumption, or attrition; as, a coat wears well or ill; -- hence, sometimes applied to character, qualifications, etc.; as, a man wears well as an acquaintance.
Weary (superl.) Having one's patience, relish, or contentment exhausted; tired; sick; -- with of before the cause; as, weary of marching, or of confinement; weary of study.
Wear (n.) A long notch with a horizontal edge, as in the top of a vertical plate or plank, through which water flows, -- used in measuring the quantity of flowing water.
Where (adv.) At or in what place; hence, in what situation, position, or circumstances; -- used interrogatively.
Where (adv.) At or in which place; at the place in which; hence, in the case or instance in which; -- used relatively.
Where (adv.) To what or which place; hence, to what goal, result, or issue; whither; -- used interrogatively and relatively; as, where are you going?
Whereabouts (adv.) About where; near what or which place; -- used interrogatively and relatively; as, whereabouts did you meet him?
Whereas (conj.) Considering that; it being the case that; since; -- used to introduce a preamble which is the basis of declarations, affirmations, commands, requests, or like, that follow.
Whereas (conj.) When in fact; while on the contrary; the case being in truth that; although; -- implying opposition to something that precedes; or implying recognition of facts, sometimes followed by a different statement, and sometimes by inferences or something consequent.
Whereat (adv.) At which; upon which; whereupon; -- used relatively.
Whereat (adv.) At what; -- used interrogatively; as, whereat are you offended?
Whereby (adv.) By which; -- used relatively.
Whereby (adv.) By what; how; -- used interrogatively.
Wherefore (adv. & conj.) For which reason; so; -- used relatively.
Wherefore (adv. & conj.) For what reason; why; -- used interrogatively.
Wherein (adv.) In which; in which place, thing, time, respect, or the like; -- used relatively.
Wherein (adv.) In what; -- used interrogatively.
Whereinto (adv.) Into which; -- used relatively.
Whereinto (adv.) Into what; -- used interrogatively.
Whereof (adv.) Of which; of whom; formerly, also, with which; -- used relatively.
Whereof (adv.) Of what; -- used interrogatively.
Whereon (adv.) On which; -- used relatively; as, the earth whereon we live.
Whereon (adv.) On what; -- used interrogatively; as, whereon do we stand?
Whereto (adv.) To which; -- used relatively.
Whereto (adv.) To what; to what end; -- used interrogatively.
Wherewith (adv.) With which; -- used relatively.
Wherewith (adv.) With what; -- used interrogatively.
Wherry (n.) A passenger barge or lighter plying on rivers; also, a kind of light, half-decked vessel used in fishing.
Wherry (n.) A liquor made from the pulp of crab apples after the verjuice is expressed; -- sometimes called crab wherry.
Whirlbat (n.) Anything moved with a whirl, as preparatory for a blow, or to augment the force of it; -- applied by poets to the cestus of ancient boxers.
Whoreson (n.) A bastard; colloquially, a low, scurvy fellow; -- used generally in contempt, or in coarse humor. Also used adjectively.
Worrel (n.) An Egyptian fork-tongued lizard, about four feet long when full grown.
Yearling (n.) An animal one year old, or in the second year of its age; -- applied chiefly to cattle, sheep, and horses.
Yeorling (n.) The European yellow-hammer.
Yourself (pron.) An emphasized or reflexive form of the pronoun of the second person; -- used as a subject commonly with you; as, you yourself shall see it; also, alone in the predicate, either in the nominative or objective case; as, you have injured yourself.
Yttrium (n.) A rare metallic element of the boron-aluminium group, found in gadolinite and other rare minerals, and extracted as a dark gray powder. Symbol Y. Atomic weight, 89.
About the author
Copyright © 2011 Mark McCracken
, All Rights Reserved.
Author: Mark McCracken is a corporate trainer and author living in Higashi Osaka, Japan. He is the author of thousands of online articles as well as the Business English textbook, "25 Business Skills in English".