Words whose 5th letter is A

Abaca (n.) The Manila-hemp plant (Musa textilis); also, its fiber. See Manila hemp under Manila.

Abigail (n.) A lady's waiting-maid.

Abreast (adv.) Side by side; also, opposite; over against; on a Abstain (v. i.) To hold one's self aloof; to forbear or refrain voluntarily, and especially from an indulgence of the passions or appetites; -- with from.

Acciaccatura (n.) A short grace note, one semitone below the note to which it is prefixed; -- used especially in organ music. Now used as equivalent to the short appoggiatura.

Acerate (a.) Acerose; needle-shaped.

Acetabular (a.) Cup-shaped; saucer-shaped; acetabuliform.

Acetabulifera (n. pl.) The division of Cephalopoda in which the arms are furnished with cup-shaped suckers, as the cuttlefishes, squids, and octopus; the Dibranchiata. See Cephalopoda.

Acetabuliform (a.) Shaped like a shallow cup; saucer-shaped; as, an acetabuliform calyx.

Acetanilide (n.) A compound of aniAchlamydate (a.) Not possessing a mantle; -- said of certain gastropods.

Acinaciform (a.) Scimeter-shaped; as, an acinaciform leaf.

Acquaint (v. t.) To furnish or give experimental knowledge of; to make (one) to know; to make familiar; -- followed by with.

Acquaint (v. t.) To communicate notice to; to inform; to make cognizant; -- followed by with (formerly, also, by of), or by that, introducing the intelligence; as, to acquaint a friend with the particulars of an act.

Acroamatical (a.) Communicated orally; oral; -- applied to the esoteric teachings of Aristotle, those intended for his genuine disciples, in distinction from his exoteric doctrines, which were adapted to outsiders or the public generally. Hence: Abstruse; profound.

Actual (a.) Existing in act or reality; really acted or acting; in fact; real; -- opposed to potential, possible, virtual, speculative, conceivable, theoretical, or nominal; as, the actual cost of goods; the actual case under discussion.

Actualist (n.) One who deals with or considers actually existing facts and conditions, rather than fancies or theories; -- opposed to idealist.

Actuary (n.) A registrar or clerk; -- used originally in courts of civil law jurisdiction, but in Europe used for a clerk or registrar generally.

Actuate (v. t.) To put into action or motion; to move or incite to action; to influence actively; to move as motives do; -- more commonly used of persons.

Acutangular (a.) Acute-angled.

Adreamed (p. p.) Visited by a dream; -- used in the phrase, To be adreamed, to dream.

Adularia (n.) A transparent or translucent variety of common feldspar, or orthoclase, which often shows pearly opalescent reflections; -- called by lapidaries moonstone.

Ageratum (n.) A genus of plants, one species of which (A. Mexicanum) has lavender-blue flowers in dense clusters.

Aggrandize (v. t.) To make great or greater in power, rank, honor, or wealth; -- applied to persons, countries, etc.

Aggravation (n.) The act of aggravating, or making worse; -- used of evils, natural or moral; the act of increasing in severity or heinousness; something additional to a crime or wrong and enhancing its guilt or injurious consequences.

Agitator (n.) One of a body of men appointed by the army, in Cromwell's time, to look after their interests; -- called also adjutators.

Agouara (n.) The crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus), found in the tropical parts of America.

Alabaster (n.) A box or vessel for holding odoriferous ointments, etc.; -- so called from the stone of which it was originally made.

Alisanders (n.) A name given to two species of the genus Smyrnium, formerly cultivated and used as celery now is; -- called also horse parsely.

Alicant (n.) A kind of wine, formerly much esteemed; -- said to have been made near Alicant, in Spain.

Alutaceous (a.) Of a pale brown color; leather-yellow.

Amadavat (n.) The strawberry finch, a small Indian song bird (Estrelda amandava), commonly caged and kept for fighting. The female is olive brown; the male, in summer, mostly crimson; -- called also red waxbill.

Anacanths (n. pl.) A group of teleostean fishes destitute of spiny fin-rays, as the cod.

Animalculism (n.) The theory that the spermatozoon and not the ovum contains the whole of the embryo; spermatism; -- opposed to ovism.

Animadvert (v. i.) To take notice; to observe; -- commonly followed by that.

Animadvert (v. i.) To consider or remark by way of criticism or censure; to express censure; -- with on or upon.

Animating (a.) Causing animation; life-giving; inspiriting; rousing.

Apocarpous (a.) Either entirely or partially separate, as the carpels of a compound pistil; -- opposed to syncarpous.

Apolar (a.) Having no radiating processes; -- applied particularly to certain nerve cells.

Aramaic (a.) Pertaining to Aram, or to the territory, inhabitants, language, or literature of Syria and Mesopotamia; Aramaean; -- specifically applied to the northern branch of the Semitic family of languages, including Syriac and Chaldee.

Arapaima (n.) A large fresh-water food fish of South America.

Archaeolithic (a.) Of or pertaining to the earliest Stone age; -- applied to a prehistoric period preceding the Paleolithic age.

Archaism (a.) An ancient, antiquated, or old-fashioned, word, expression, or idiom; a word or form of speech no longer in common use.

Arena (n.) The area in the central part of an amphitheater, in which the gladiators fought and other shows were exhibited; -- so called because it was covered with sand.

Aretaics (n.) The ethical theory which excludes all relations between virtue and happiness; the science of virtue; -- contrasted with eudemonics.

Aromatical (a.) Pertaining to, or containing, aroma; fragrant; spicy; strong-scented; odoriferous; as, aromatic balsam.

Arrear (n.) That which is behind in payment, or which remains unpaid, though due; esp. a remainder, or balance which remains due when some part has been paid; arrearage; -- commonly used in the plural, as, arrears of rent, wages, or taxes.

Artiad (a.) Even; not odd; -- said of elementary substances and of radicals the valence of which is divisible by two without a remainder.

Ascians (n. pl.) Persons who, at certain times of the year, have no shadow at noon; -- applied to the inhabitants of the torrid zone, who have, twice a year, a vertical sun.

Asphaltum (n.) A composition of bitumen, pitch, lime, and gravel, used for forming pavements, and as a water-proof cement for bridges, roofs, etc.; asphaltic cement. Artificial asphalt is prepared from coal tar, lime, sand, etc.

Atacamite (n.) An oxychloride of copper, usually in emerald-green prismatic crystals.

Avatar (n.) The descent of a deity to earth, and his incarnation as a man or an animal; -- chiefly associated with the incarnations of Vishnu.

Avocado (n.) The pulpy fruit of Persea gratissima, a tree of tropical America. It is about the size and shape of a large pear; -- called also avocado pear, alligator pear, midshipman's butter.

Azedarach (n.) A handsome Asiatic tree (Melia azedarach), common in the southern United States; -- called also, Pride of India, Pride of China, and Bead tree.

Bablah (n.) The ring of the fruit of several East Indian species of acacia; neb-neb. It contains gallic acid and tannin, and is used for dyeing drab.

Backare (interj.) Stand back! give place! -- a cant word of the Elizabethan writers, probably in ridicule of some person who pretended to a knowledge of Latin which he did not possess.

Baccate (a.) Pulpy throughout, like a berry; -- said of fruits.

Badiaga (n.) A fresh-water sponge (Spongilla), common in the north of Europe, the powder of which is used to take away the livid marks of bruises.

Baggala (n.) A two-masted Arab or Indian trading vessel, used in Indian Ocean.

Bailable (a.) Having the right or privilege of being admitted to bail, upon bond with sureties; -- used of persons.

Balaam (n.) A paragraph describing something wonderful, used to fill out a newspaper column; -- an allusion to the miracle of Balaam's ass speaking.

Ballahou (n.) A fast-sailing schooner, used in the Bermudas and West Indies.

Barbaic (a.) Of, or from, barbarian nations; foreign; -- often with reference to barbarous nations of east.

Bargain (n.) To make a bargain; to make a contract for the exchange of property or services; -- followed by with and for; as, to bargain with a farmer for a cow.

Bargainer (n.) One who makes a bargain; -- sometimes in the sense of bargainor.

Barnacle (sing.) Spectacles; -- so called from their resemblance to the barnacles used by farriers.

Barracan (n.) A thick, strong stuff, somewhat like camlet; -- still used for outer garments in the Levant.

Barraclade (n.) A home-made woolen blanket without nap.

Barracouata (n.) A large edible fresh-water fish of Australia and New Zealand (Thyrsites atun).

Bashaw (n.) A very large siluroid fish (Leptops olivaris) of the Mississippi valley; -- also called goujon, mud cat, and yellow cat.

Bastard (n.) Lacking in genuineness; spurious; false; adulterate; -- applied to things which resemble those which are genuine, but are really not so.

Bateau (n.) A boat; esp. a flat-bottomed, clumsy boat used on the Canadian lakes and rivers.

Batrachomyomachy (n.) The battle between the frogs and mice; -- a Greek parody on the Iliad, of uncertain authorship.

Banzai (interj.) Lit., May you live ten thousand years; -- used in salutation of the emperor and as a battle cry.

Barramundi (n.) A remarkable Australian fresh-water ganoid fish of the genus Ceratodus.

Battalion (n.) An infantry command of two or more companies, which is the tactical unit of the infantry, or the smallest command which is self-supporting upon the battlefield, and also the unit in which the strength of the infantry of an army is expressed.

Bayman (n.) In the United States navy, a sick-bay nurse; -- now officially designated as hospital apprentice.

Beggar (n.) One who is dependent upon others for support; -- a contemptuous or sarcastic use.

Beggarly (a.) In the condition of, or like, a beggar; suitable for a beggar; extremely indigent; poverty-stricken; mean; poor; contemptible.

Beldame (n.) Grandmother; -- corresponding to belsire.

Belladonna (n.) An herbaceous European plant (Atropa belladonna) with reddish bell-shaped flowers and shining black berries. The whole plant and its fruit are very poisonous, and the root and leaves are used as powerful medicinal agents. Its properties are largely due to the alkaloid atropine which it contains. Called also deadly nightshade.

Benzal (n.) A compound radical, C6H5.CH, of the aromatic series, related to benzyl and benzoyl; -- used adjectively or in combination.

Bereave (v. t.) To make destitute; to deprive; to strip; -- with of before the person or thing taken away.

Bergamot (n.) A tree of the Orange family (Citrus bergamia), having a roundish or pear-shaped fruit, from the rind of which an essential oil of delicious odor is extracted, much prized as a perfume. Also, the fruit.

Bergamot (n.) A coarse tapestry, manufactured from flock of cotton or hemp, mixed with ox's or goat's hair; -- said to have been invented at Bergamo, Italy. Encyc. Brit.

Betray (v. t.) To show or to indicate; -- said of what is not obvious at first, or would otherwise be concealed.

Bellarmine (n.) A stoneware jug of a pattern originated in the neighborhood of Cologne, Germany, in the 16th century. It has a bearded face or mask supposed to represent Cardinal Bellarmine, a leader in the Roman Catholic Counter Reformation, following the Reformation; -- called also graybeard, longbeard.

Billabong (n.) In Australia, a blind channel leading out from a river; -- sometimes called an anabranch. This is the sense of the word as used in the Public Works Department; but the term has also been locally applied to mere back-waters forming stagnant pools and to certain water channels arising from a source.

Birlaw (n.) A law made by husbandmen respecting rural affairs; a rustic or local law or by-law.

Bollandists (n. pl.) The Jesuit editors of the "Acta Sanctorum", or Lives of the Saints; -- named from John Bolland, who began the work.

Bombardon (n.) Originally, a deep-toned instrument of the oboe or bassoon family; thence, a bass reed stop on the organ. The name bombardon is now given to a brass instrument, the lowest of the saxhorns, in tone resembling the ophicleide.

Bombast (n.) Fig.: High-sounding words; an inflated style; language above the dignity of the occasion; fustian.

Bombast (a.) High-sounding; inflated; big without meaning; magniloquent; bombastic.

Bombastical (a.) Characterized by bombast; high-sounding; inflated.

Bondar (n.) A small quadruped of Bengal (Paradoxurus bondar), allied to the genet; -- called also musk cat.

Boreas (n.) The north wind; -- usually a personification.

Boxhaul (v. t.) To put (a vessel) on the other tack by veering her short round on her heel; -- so called from the circumstance of bracing the head yards abox (i. e., sharp aback, on the wind).

Boreal (a.) Designating or pertaining to a terrestrial division consisting of the northern and mountainous parts of both the Old and the New World; -- equivalent to the Holarctic region exclusive of the Transition, Sonoran, and corresponding areas. The term is used by American authors and applied by them chiefly to the Nearctic subregion. The Boreal region includes approximately all of North and Central America in which the mean temperature of the hottest season does not exceed 18? C. (= 64.4?> Brigand (n.) A light-armed, irregular foot soldier.

Brigantine (n.) A two-masted, square-rigged vessel, differing from a brig in that she does not carry a square mainsail.

Britannia (n.) A white-metal alloy of tin, antimony, bismuth, copper, etc. It somewhat resembles silver, and is used for table ware. Called also Britannia metal.

Brocade (n.) Silk stuff, woven with gold and silver threads, or ornamented with raised flowers, foliage, etc.; -- also applied to other stuffs thus wrought and enriched.

Buccaneer (n.) A robber upon the sea; a pirate; -- a term applied especially to the piratical adventurers who made depredations on the Spaniards in America in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Buffalo (n.) A very large and savage species of the same genus (B. Caffer) found in South Africa; -- called also Cape buffalo.

Bugbane (n.) A perennial white-flowered herb of the order Ranunculaceae and genus Cimiciguga; bugwort. There are several species.

Bummalo (n.) A small marine Asiatic fish (Saurus ophidon) used in India as a relish; -- called also Bombay duck.

Buoyancy (n.) Cheerfulness; vivacity; liveBuoyant (v. t. & i.) Light-hearted; vivacious; cheerful; as, a buoyant disposition; buoyant spirits.

Burgall (n.) A small marine fish; -- also called cunner.

Calcaneum (n.) One of the bones of the tarsus which in man, forms the great bone of the heel; -- called also fibulare.

Calcariferous (a.) Lime-yielding; calciferous

Calcavella (n.) A sweet wine from Portugal; -- so called from the district of Carcavelhos.

Calvary (n.) A cross, set upon three steps; -- more properly called cross calvary.

Campaniform (a.) Bell-shaped.

Campaniliform (a.) Bell-shaped; campanulate; campaniform.

Campanula (n.) A large genus of plants bearing bell-shaped flowers, often of great beauty; -- also called bellflower.

Campanulaceous (a.) Of pertaining to, or resembling, the family of plants (Camponulaceae) of which Campanula is the type, and which includes the Canterbury bell, the harebell, and the Venus's looking-glass.

Campanularian (n.) A hydroid of the family ampanularidae, characterized by having the polyps or zooids inclosed in bell-shaped calicles or hydrothecae.

Campanulate (a.) Bell-shaped.

Cantabile (n.) A piece or passage, whether vocal or instrumental, peculiarly adapted to singing; -- sometimes called cantilena.

Canvas (n.) A strong cloth made of hemp, flax, or cotton; -- used for tents, sails, etc.

Canvasback (n.) A Species of duck (Aythya vallisneria), esteemed for the delicacy of its flesh. It visits the United States in autumn; particularly Chesapeake Bay and adjoining waters; -- so named from the markings of the plumage on its back.

Canvass (v. i.) To search thoroughly; to engage in solicitation by traversing a district; as, to canvass for subscriptions or for votes; to canvass for a book, a publisher, or in behalf of a charity; -- commonly followed by for.

Capias (n.) A writ or process commanding the officer to take the body of the person named in it, that is, to arrest him; -- also called writ of capias.

Carcajou (n.) The wolverene; -- also applied, but erroneously, to the Canada lynx, and sometimes to the American badger. See Wolverene.

Carcass (n.) The living body; -- now commonly used in contempt or ridicule.

Cardamine (n.) A genus of cruciferous plants, containing the lady's-smock, cuckooflower, bitter cress, meadow cress, etc.

Cariama (n.) A large, long-legged South American bird (Dicholophus cristatus) which preys upon snakes, etc. See Seriema.

Carnal (a.) Flesh-devouring; cruel; ravenous; bloody.

Carpathian (a.) Of or pertaining to a range of mountains in Austro-Hungary, called the Carpathians, which partially inclose Hungary on the north, east, and south.

Carrancha (n.) The Brazilian kite (Polyborus Brasiliensis); -- so called in imitation of its notes.

Cassava (n.) A shrubby euphorbiaceous plant of the genus Manihot, with fleshy rootstocks yielding an edible starch; -- called also manioc.

Castanea (n.) A genus of nut-bearing trees or shrubs including the chestnut and chinquapin.

Castanets (n. pl.) Two small, concave shells of ivory or hard wood, shaped like spoons, fastened to the thumb, and beaten together with the middle finger; -- used by the Spaniards and Moors as an accompaniment to their dance and guitars.

Catharist (n.) One aiming at or pretending to a greater purity of like than others about him; -- applied to persons of various sects. See Albigenses.

Cathay (n.) China; -- an old name for the Celestial Empire, said have been introduced by Marco Polo and to be a corruption of the Tartar name for North China (Khitai, the country of the Khitans.)

Caudal (a.) Of the nature of, or pertaining to, a tail; having a tail-like appendage.

Caviar (n.) The roes of the sturgeon, prepared and salted; -- used as a relish, esp. in Russia.

Cental (n.) A weight of one hundred pounds avoirdupois; -- called in many parts of the United States a Hundredweight.

Cephalaspis (n.) A genus of fossil ganoid fishes found in the old red sandstone or Devonian formation. The head is large, and protected by a broad shield-shaped helmet prolonged behind into two lateral points.

Cephalata (n. pl.) A large division of Mollusca, including all except the bivalves; -- so called because the head is distinctly developed. See Illustration in Appendix.

Cephalotomy (n.) Craniotomy; -- usually applied to bisection of the fetal head with a saw.

Cephalous (a.) Having a head; -- applied chiefly to the Cephalata, a division of mollusks.

Cercaria (n.) The larval form of a trematode worm having the shape of a tadpole, with its body terminated by a tail-like appendage.

Cereal (n.) Any grass cultivated for its edible grain, or the grain itself; -- usually in the plural.

Certain (a.) Determined; resolved; -- used with an infinitive.

Certain (a.) Not specifically named; indeterminate; indefinite; one or some; -- sometimes used independenty as a noun, and meaning certain persons.

Centauromachy (n.) A fight in which centaurs take part, -- a common theme for relief sculpture, as in the Parthenon metopes.

Centauromachy (n.) A fight in which centaurs take part, -- a common theme for relief sculpture, as in the Parthenon metopes.

Chaparajos (n. pl.) Overalls of sheepskin or leather, usually open at the back, worn, esp. by cowboys, to protect the legs from thorny bushes, as in the chaparral; -- called also chapareras or colloq. chaps.

Chaparajos (n. pl.) Overalls of sheepskin or leather, usually open at the back, worn, esp. by cowboys, to protect the legs from thorny bushes, as in the chaparral; -- called also chapareras or colloq. chaps.

Chaja (n.) The crested screamer of Brazil (Palamedea, / Chauna, chavaria), so called in imitation of its notes; -- called also chauna, and faithful kamichi. It is often domesticated and is useful in guarding other poultry. See Kamichi.

Chebacco (n.) A narrow-sterned boat formerly much used in the Newfoundland fisheries; -- called also pinkstern and chebec.

Chicane (n.) The use of artful subterfuge, designed to draw away attention from the merits of a case or question; -- specifically applied to legal proceedings; trickery; chicanery; caviling; sophistry.

Chikara (n.) The Indian four-horned antelope (Tetraceros quadricornis).

Chivalrous (a.) Pertaining to chivalry or knight-errantry; warlike; heroic; gallant; high-spirited; high-minded; magnanimous.

Chivalry (n.) The dignity or system of knighthood; the spirit, usages, or manners of knighthood; the practice of knight-errantry.

Chylaqueous (a.) Consisting of chyle much diluted with water; -- said of a liquid which forms the circulating fluid of some inferior animals.

Clavated (a.) Club-shaped; having the form of a club; growing gradually thicker toward the top. [See Illust. of Antennae.]

Clematis (n.) A genus of flowering plants, of many species, mostly climbers, having feathery styles, which greatly enlarge in the fruit; -- called also virgin's bower.

Clinanthium (n.) The receptacle of the flowers in a composite plant; -- also called clinium.

Commandeer (v. t.) To compel to perform military service; to seize for military purposes; -- orig. used of the Boers.

Cobia (n.) An oceanic fish of large size (Elacate canada); the crabeater; -- called also bonito, cubbyyew, coalfish, and sergeant fish.

Cockade (n.) A badge, usually in the form of a rosette, or knot, and generally worn upon the hat; -- used as an indication of military or naval service, or party allegiance, and in England as a part of the livery to indicate that the wearer is the servant of a military or naval officer.

Cockateel (n.) An Australian parrot (Calopsitta Novae-Hollandiae); -- so called from its note.

Cockatoo (n.) A bird of the Parrot family, of the subfamily Cacatuinae, having a short, strong, and much curved beak, and the head ornamented with a crest, which can be raised or depressed at will. There are several genera and many species; as the broad-crested (Plictolophus, / Cacatua, cristatus), the sulphur-crested (P. galeritus), etc. The palm or great black cockatoo of Australia is Microglossus aterrimus.

Cocoanut (n.) The large, hard-shelled nut of the cocoa palm. It yields an agreeable milky liquid and a white meat or albumen much used as food and in making oil.

Coeval (n.) Of the same age; existing during the same period of time, especially time long and remote; -- usually followed by with.

Cognation (n.) That tie of consanguinity which exists between persons descended from the same mother; -- used in distinction from agnation.

Collar (n.) An eye formed in the bight or bend of a shroud or stay to go over the masthead; also, a rope to which certain parts of rigging, as dead-eyes, are secured.

Collared (a.) Wearing a collar; -- said of a man or beast used as a bearing when a collar is represented as worn around the neck or loins.

Collate (v. t.) To present and institute in a benefice, when the person presenting is both the patron and the ordinary; -- followed by to.

Collateral (a.) Descending from the same stock or ancestor, but not in the same Collation (v. t.) A light repast or luncheon; as, a cold collation; -- first applied to the refreshment on fast days that accompanied the reading of the collation in monasteries.

Collative (a.) Passing or held by collation; -- said of livings of which the bishop and the patron are the same person.

Combattant (a.) In the position of fighting; -- said of two lions set face to face, each rampant.

Commandant (n.) A commander; the commanding officer of a place, or of a body of men; as, the commandant of a navy-yard.

Commander (n.) An officer who ranks next below a captain, -- ranking with a lieutenant colonel in the army.

Commandery (n.) A district or a manor with lands and tenements appertaining thereto, under the control of a member of an order of knights who was called a commander; -- called also a preceptory.

Compact (p. p. & a) Composed or made; -- with of.

Compact (v. t.) To thrust, drive, or press closely together; to join firmly; to consolidate; to make close; -- as the parts which compose a body.

Companion (n.) A fellow; -- in contempt.

Company (n.) An association of persons for the purpose of carrying on some enterprise or business; a corporation; a firm; as, the East India Company; an insurance company; a joint-stock company.

Company (n.) Partners in a firm whose names are not mentioned in its style or title; -- often abbreviated in writing; as, Hottinguer & Co.

Comparative (a.) Expressing a degree greater or less than the positive degree of the quality denoted by an adjective or adverb. The comparative degree is formed from the positive by the use of -er, more, or less; as, brighter, more bright, or less bright.

Comparator (n.) An instrument or machine for comparing anything to be measured with a standard measure; -- applied especially to a machine for comparing standards of length.

Compare (v. t.) To inflect according to the degrees of comparison; to state positive, comparative, and superlative forms of; as, most adjectives of one syllable are compared by affixing "- er" and "-est" to the positive form; as, black, blacker, blackest; those of more than one syllable are usually compared by prefixing "more" and "most", or "less" and "least", to the positive; as, beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful.

Compartment (n.) One of the sections into which the hold of a ship is divided by water-tight bulkheads.

Compass (n.) Moderate bounds, limits of truth; moderation; due limits; -- used with within.

Compass (v. t.) To inclose on all sides; to surround; to encircle; to environ; to invest; to besiege; -- used with about, round, around, and round about.

Compatible (a.) Capable of existing in harmony; congruous; suitable; not repugnant; -- usually followed by with.

Concave (a.) Hollow and curved or rounded; vaulted; -- said of the interior of a curved surface or Concaved (a.) Bowed in the form of an arch; -- called also arched.

Connate (a.) Congenitally united; growing from one base, or united at their bases; united into one body; as, connate leaves or athers. See Illust. of Connate-perfoliate.

Cordate (a.) Heart-shaped; as, a cordate leaf.

Corral (v. t.) To surround and inclose; to coop up; to put into an inclosed space; -- primarily used with reference to securing horses and cattle in an inclosure of wagons while traversing the plains, but in the Southwestern United States now colloquially applied to the capturing, securing, or penning of anything.

Coumarin (n.) The concrete essence of the tonka bean, the fruit of Dipterix (formerly Coumarouna) odorata and consisting essentially of coumarin proper, which is a white crystalCourant (a.) Represented as running; -- said of a beast borne in a coat of arms.

Cowcatxjer (n.) A strong incCrapaudine (n.) Turning on pivots at the top and bottom; -- said of a door.

Crenature (n.) A rounded tooth or notch of a crenate leaf, or any part that is crenate; -- called also crenelle.

Crusade (v. i.) To engage in a crusade; to attack in a zealous or hot-headed manner.

Cuirassed (a.) Having a covering of bony plates, resembling a cuirass; -- said of certain fishes.

Cuneal () Relating to a wedge; wedge-shaped.

Cuneated (a.) Wedge-shaped

Cuneated (a.) wedge-shaped, with the point at the base; as, a cuneate leaf.

Curia (n.) The Roman See in its temporal aspects, including all the machinery of administration; -- called also curia Romana.

Currant (n.) A small kind of seedless raisin, imported from the Levant, chiefly from Zante and Cephalonia; -- used in cookery.

Curtain (n.) A flag; an ensign; -- in contempt.

Curtana (n.) The pointless sword carried before English monarchs at their coronation, and emblematically considered as the sword of mercy; -- also called the sword of Edward the Confessor.

Curtate (a.) Shortened or reduced; -- said of the distance of a planet from the sun or earth, as measured in the plane of the ecliptic, or the distance from the sun or earth to that point where a perpendicular, let fall from the planet upon the plane of the ecliptic, meets the ecliptic.

Curvative (a.) Having the margins only a little curved; -- said of leaves.

Cutwater (n.) A sea bird of the Atlantic (Rhynchops nigra); -- called also black skimmer, scissorsbill, and razorbill. See Skimmer.

Cymbal (n.) A musical instrument of brass, shaped like a circular dish or a flat plate, with a handle at the back; -- used in pairs to produce a sharp ringing sound by clashing them together.

Daedalous (a.) Having a variously cut or incised margin; -- said of leaves.

Dalmatic (n.) A vestment with wide sleeves, and with two stripes, worn at Mass by deacons, and by bishops at pontifical Mass; -- imitated from a dress originally worn in Dalmatia.

Dammara (n.) A large tree of the order Coniferae, indigenous to the East Indies and Australasia; -- called also Agathis. There are several species.

Degras (n.) A semisolid emulsion produced by the treatment of certain skins with oxidized fish oil, which extracts their soluble albuminoids. It was formerly solely a by-product of chamois leather manufacture, but is now made for its own sake, being valuable as a dressing for hides.

Delta (n.) The closed figure produced by connecting three coils or circuits successively, end for end, esp. in a three-phase system; -- often used attributively, as delta winding, delta connection (which see), etc.

Deccapodous (a.) Belonging to the decapods; having ten feet; ten-footed.

Declare (v. i.) To make a declaration, or an open and explicit avowal; to proclaim one's self; -- often with for or against; as, victory declares against the allies.

Defeat (v.) An overthrow, as of an army in battle; loss of a battle; repulse suffered; discomfiture; -- opposed to victory.

Defraud (v. t.) To deprive of some right, interest, or property, by a deceitful device; to withhold from wrongfully; to injure by embezzlement; to cheat; to overreach; as, to defraud a servant, or a creditor, or the state; -- with of before the thing taken or withheld.

Degraded (a.) Having steps; -- said of a cross each of whose extremities finishes in steps growing larger as they leave the center; -- termed also on degrees.

Deiparous (a.) Bearing or bringing forth a god; -- said of the Virgin Mary.

Demean (v. t.) To conduct; to behave; to comport; -- followed by the reflexive pronoun.

Demean (v. t.) To debase; to lower; to degrade; -- followed by the reflexive pronoun.

Denial (n.) The act of gainsaying, refusing, or disowning; negation; -- the contrary of affirmation.

Denial (n.) A refusal to acknowledge; disclaimer of connection with; disavowal; -- the contrary of confession; as, the denial of a fault charged on one; a denial of God.

Dental (a.) Formed by the aid of the teeth; -- said of certain articulations and the letters representing them; as, d t are dental letters.

Despair (v. i.) To be hopeless; to have no hope; to give up all hope or expectation; -- often with of.

Detract (v. i.) To take away a part or something, especially from one's credit; to lessen reputation; to derogate; to defame; -- often with from.

Diabase (n.) A basic, dark-colored, holocrystalDiacatholicon (n.) A universal remedy; -- name formerly to a purgative electuary.

Diana (n.) The daughter of Jupiter and Latona; a virgin goddess who presided over hunting, chastity, and marriage; -- identified with the Greek goddess Artemis.

Dicyanide (n.) A compound of a binary type containing two cyanogen groups or radicals; -- called also bicyanide.

Didrachma (n.) A two-drachma piece; an ancient Greek silver coin, worth nearly forty cents.

Discalced (a.) Unshod; barefooted; -- in distinction from calced.

Disease (n.) An alteration in the state of the body or of some of its organs, interrupting or disturbing the performance of the vital functions, and causing or threatening pain and weakness; malady; affection; illness; sickness; disorder; -- applied figuratively to the mind, to the moral character and habits, to institutions, the state, etc.

Disease (v. t.) To derange the vital functions of; to afflict with disease or sickness; to disorder; -- used almost exclusively in the participle diseased.

Disgavel (v. t.) To deprive of that principal quality of gavelkind tenure by which lands descend equally among all the sons of the tenant; -- said of lands.

Dismal (a.) Fatal; ill-omened; unlucky.

Disparagement (n.) Injurious comparison with an inferior; a depreciating or dishonoring opinion or insinuation; diminution of value; dishonor; indignity; reproach; disgrace; detraction; -- commonly with to.

Disparity (n.) Inequality; difference in age, rank, condition, or excellence; dissimilitude; -- followed by between, in, of, as to, etc.; as, disparity in, or of, years; a disparity as to color.

Dispart (n.) A piece of metal placed on the muzzle, or near the trunnions, on the top of a piece of ordnance, to make the Dispatch (v. t.) To send off or away; -- particularly applied to sending off messengers, messages, letters, etc., on special business, and implying haste.

Dispatch (v. t.) A message dispatched or sent with speed; especially, an important official letter sent from one public officer to another; -- often used in the plural; as, a messenger has arrived with dispatches for the American minister; naval or military dispatches.

Distain (v. t.) To tinge with a different color from the natural or proper one; to stain; to discolor; to sully; to tarnish; to defile; -- used chiefly in poetry.

Distance (n.) Relative space, between troops in ranks, measured from front to rear; -- contrasted with interval, which is measured from right to left.

Distant (a.) Far separated; far off; not near; remote; -- in place, time, consanguinity, or connection; as, distant times; distant relatives.

Dogcart (n.) A light one-horse carriage, commonly two-wheeled, patterned after a cart. The original dogcarts used in England by sportsmen had a box at the back for carrying dogs.

Dogmatic (n.) One of an ancient sect of physicians who went by general principles; -- opposed to the Empiric.

Dollardee (n.) A species of sunfish (Lepomis pallidus), common in the United States; -- called also blue sunfish, and copper-nosed bream.

Donna (n.) A lady; madam; mistress; -- the title given a lady in Italy.

Donnat (n.) See Do-naught.

Dorhawk (n.) The European goatsucker; -- so called because it eats the dor beetle. See Goatsucker.

Dormant (a.) In a sleeping posture; as, a lion dormant; -- distinguished from couchant.

Dorsal (a.) Pertaining to, or situated near, the back, or dorsum, of an animal or of one of its parts; notal; tergal; neural; as, the dorsal fin of a fish; the dorsal artery of the tongue; -- opposed to ventral.

Dracaena (n.) A genus of liliaceous plants with woody stems and funnel-shaped flowers.

Dracanth (n.) A kind of gum; -- called also gum tragacanth, or tragacanth. See Tragacanth.

Durham (n.) One or a breed of short-horned cattle, originating in the county of Durham, England. The Durham cattle are noted for their beef-producing quality.

Durra (n.) A kind of millet, cultivated throughout Asia, and introduced into the south of Europe; a variety of Sorghum vulgare; -- called also Indian millet, and Guinea corn.

Elegancy (n.) The state or quality of being elegant; beauty as resulting from choice qualities and the complete absence of what deforms or impresses unpleasantly; grace given by art or practice; fine polish; refinement; -- said of manners, language, style, form, architecture, etc.

Elevation (n.) The act of raising from a lower place, condition, or quality to a higher; -- said of material things, persons, the mind, the voice, etc.; as, the elevation of grain; elevation to a throne; elevation of mind, thoughts, or character.

Elevation (n.) The movement of the axis of a piece in a vertical plane; also, the angle of elevation, that is, the angle between the axis of the piece and the Elevation (n.) A geometrical projection of a building, or other object, on a plane perpendicular to the horizon; orthographic projection on a vertical plane; -- called by the ancients the orthography.

Elevator (n.) A movable plane or group of planes used to control the altitude or fore-and-aft poise or inclination of an airship or flying machine.

Elevator (n.) A cage or platform and the hoisting machinery in a hotel, warehouse, mine, etc., for conveying persons, goods, etc., to or from different floors or levels; -- called in England a lift; the cage or platform itself.

Emanant (a.) Issuing or flowing forth; emanating; passing forth into an act, or making itself apparent by an effect; -- said of mental acts; as, an emanant volition.

Emblazon (v. t.) To depict or represent; -- said of heraldic bearings. See Blazon.

Encratite (n.) One of a sect in the 2d century who abstained from marriage, wine, and animal food; -- called also Continent.

Enneagynous (a.) Having or producing nine pistils or styles; -- said of a flower or plant.

Enneaspermous (a.) Having nine seeds; -- said of fruits.

Epigastric (a.) Over the stomach; -- applied to two of the areas of the carapace of crabs.

Epitasis (n.) That part which embraces the main action of a play, poem, and the like, and leads on to the catastrophe; -- opposed to protasis.

Euryale (n.) A genus of ophiurans with much-branched arms.

Extravasate (v. t.) To pass by infiltration or effusion from the normal channel, such as a blood vessel or a lymphatic, into the surrounding tissue; -- said of blood, lymph, etc.

Exchange (n.) To part with give, or transfer to another in consideration of something received as an equivalent; -- usually followed by for before the thing received.

Exclamation (n.) A mark or sign by which outcry or emphatic utterance is marked; thus [!]; -- called also exclamation point.

Exocardial (a.) Situated or arising outside of the heat; as, exocardial murmurs; -- opposed to endocardiac.

Exogamy (n.) The custom, or tribal law, which prohibits marriage between members of the same tribe; marriage outside of the tribe; -- opposed to endogamy.

Extraaxillary (a.) Growing outside of the axils; as, an extra-axillary bud.

Extrabranchial (a.) Outside of the branchial arches; -- said of the cartilages thus placed in some fishes.

Extract (n.) A solid preparation obtained by evaporating a solution of a drug, etc., or the fresh juice of a plant; -- distinguished from an abstract. See Abstract, n., 4.

Extract (n.) A peculiar principle once erroneously supposed to form the basis of all vegetable extracts; -- called also the extractive principle.

Extravascular (a.) Outside the vessels; -- said of the substance of all the tissues.

Extravascular (a.) Destitute of vessels; non-vascular.

Eyelash (n.) The fringe of hair that edges the eyelid; -- usually in the pl.

Falcated (a.) Hooked or bent like a sickle; as, a falcate leaf; a falcate claw; -- said also of the moon, or a planet, when horned or crescent-formed.

Faldage (n.) A privilege of setting up, and moving about, folds for sheep, in any fields within manors, in order to manure them; -- often reserved to himself by the lord of the manor.

Fandango (n.) A lively dance, in 3-8 or 6-8 time, much practiced in Spain and Spanish America. Also, the tune to which it is danced.

Firman (n.) In Turkey and some other Oriental countries, a decree or mandate issued by the sovereign; a royal order or grant; -- generally given for special objects, as to a traveler to insure him protection and assistance.

Fiscal (n.) The solicitor in Spain and Portugal; the attorney-general.

Floramour (n.) The plant love-lies-bleeding.

Foliate (v. t.) To spread over with a thin coat of tin and quicksilver; as, to foliate a looking-glass.

Foliation (n.) The act of coating with an amalgam of tin foil and quicksilver, as in making looking-glasses.

Fontanel (n.) One of the membranous intervals between the incompleted angles of the parietal and neighboring bones of a fetal or young skull; -- so called because it exhibits a rhythmical pulsation.

Fortalice (n.) A small outwork of a fortification; a fortilage; -- called also fortelace.

Foumart (a.) The European polecat; -- called also European ferret, and fitchew. See Polecat.

Freya (n.) The daughter of Njord, and goddess of love and beauty; the Scandinavian Venus; -- in Teutonic myths confounded with Frigga, but in Scandinavian, distinct.

Fricando (n.) A ragout or fricassee of veal; a fancy dish of veal or of boned turkey, served as an entree, -- called also fricandel.

Fricative (a.) Produced by the friction or rustling of the breath, intonated or unintonated, through a narrow opening between two of the mouth organs; uttered through a close approach, but not with a complete closure, of the organs of articulation, and hence capable of being continued or prolonged; -- said of certain consonantal sounds, as f, v, s, z, etc.

Fricative (n.) A fricative consonant letter or sound. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 197-206, etc.

Frugality (n.) The quality of being frugal; prudent economy; that careful management of anything valuable which expends nothing unnecessarily, and applies what is used to a profitable purpose; thrift; --- opposed to extravagance.

Fulmar (n.) One of several species of sea birds, of the family procellariidae, allied to the albatrosses and petrels. Among the well-known species are the arctic fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) (called also fulmar petrel, malduck, and mollemock), and the giant fulmar (Ossifraga gigantea).

Furnace (n.) An inclosed place in which heat is produced by the combustion of fuel, as for reducing ores or melting metals, for warming a house, for baking pottery, etc.; as, an iron furnace; a hot-air furnace; a glass furnace; a boiler furnace, etc.

Gadwall (n.) A large duck (Anas strepera), valued as a game bird, found in the northern parts of Europe and America; -- called also gray duck.

Galea (n.) The upper lip or helmet-shaped part of a labiate flower.

Galea (n.) A genus of fossil echini, having a vaulted, helmet-shaped shell.

Galeated (a.) Helmeted; having a helmetlike part, as a crest, a flower, etc.; helmet-shaped.

Gallant (a.) Showy; splendid; magnificent; gay; well-dressed.

Gallant (a.) Noble in bearing or spirit; brave; high-spirited; courageous; heroic; magnanimous; as, a gallant youth; a gallant officer.

Galvanoplastic (a.) Of or pertaining to the art or process of electrotyping; employing, or produced by, the process of electolytic deposition; as, a galvano-plastic copy of a medal or the like.

Galvanopuncture (n.) Same as Electro-puncture.

Gardant (a.) Turning the head towards the spectator, but not the body; -- said of a lion or other beast.

Garganey (n.) A small European duck (Anas querquedula); -- called also cricket teal, and summer teal.

Gavial (n.) A large Asiatic crocodilian (Gavialis Gangeticus); -- called also nako, and Gangetic crocodile.

Germanium (n.) A rare element, recently discovered (1885), in a silver ore (argyrodite) at Freiberg. It is a brittle, silver-white metal, chemically intermediate between the metals and nonmetals, resembles tin, and is in general identical with the predicted ekasilicon. Symbol Ge. Atomic weight 72.3.

Gibbartas (n.) One of several finback whales of the North Atlantic; -- called also Jupiter whale.

Gibraltar (n.) A kind of candy sweetmeat, or a piece of it; -- called, in full, Gibraltar rock.

Goshawk (n.) Any large hawk of the genus Astur, of which many species and varieties are known. The European (Astur palumbarius) and the American (A. atricapillus) are the best known species. They are noted for their powerful flight, activity, and courage. The Australian goshawk (A. Novae-Hollandiae) is pure white.

Gossat (n.) A small British marine fish (Motella tricirrata); -- called also whistler and three-bearded rockling.

Gothamist (n.) A wiseacre; a person deficient in wisdom; -- so called from Gotham, in Nottinghamshire, England, noted for some pleasant blunders.

Gradatory (a.) Suitable for walking; -- said of the limbs of an animal when adapted for walking on land.

Granatin (n.) Mannite; -- so called because found in the pomegranate.

Gregarin (n. pl.) An order of Protozoa, allied to the Rhizopoda, and parasitic in other animals, as in the earthworm, lobster, etc. When adult, they have a small, wormlike body inclosing a nucleus, but without external organs; in one of the young stages, they are amoebiform; -- called also Gregarinida, and Gregarinaria.

Grenadier (n.) Any marine fish of the genus Macrurus, in which the body and tail taper to a point; they mostly inhabit the deep sea; -- called also onion fish, and rat-tail fish.

Grenadier (n.) A bright-colored South African grosbeak (Pyromelana orix), having the back red and the lower parts black.

Grenadillo (n.) A handsome tropical American wood, much used for making flutes and other wind instruments; -- called also Grenada cocos, or cocus, and red ebony.

Grimace (n.) A distortion of the countenance, whether habitual, from affectation, or momentary aad occasional, to express some feeling, as contempt, disapprobation, complacency, etc.; a smirk; a made-up face.

Grimalkin (n.) An old cat, esp. a she-cat.

Grisaille (n.) Decorative painting in gray monochrome; -- used in English especially for painted glass.

Guaiacol (n.) A colorless liquid, C7H8O2, with a peculiar odor. It is the methyl ether of pyrocatechin, and is obtained by distilling guaiacum from wood-tar creosote, and in other ways. It has been used in treating pulmonary tuberculosis.

Guaiacum (n.) The heart wood or the resin of the Guaiacum offinale or lignum-vitae, a large tree of the West Indies and Central America. It is much used in medicine.

Guara (n.) A large-maned wild dog of South America (Canis jubatus) -- named from its cry.

Guarantee (n.) The person to whom a guaranty is made; -- the correlative of guarantor.

Guitar (n.) A stringed instrument of music resembling the lute or the violin, but larger, and having six strings, three of silk covered with silver wire, and three of catgut, -- played upon with the fingers.

Gunwale (n.) The upper edge of a vessel's or boat's side; the uppermost wale of a ship (not including the bulwarks); or that piece of timber which reaches on either side from the quarter-deck to the forecastle, being the uppermost bend, which finishes the upper works of the hull.

Gutta (n.) One of a series of ornaments, in the form of a frustum of a cone, attached to the lower part of the triglyphs, and also to the lower faces of the mutules, in the Doric order; -- called also campana, and drop.

Gymnasium (n.) A school for the higher branches of literature and science; a preparatory school for the university; -- used esp. of German schools of this kind.

Gymnastical (a.) Pertaining to athletic exercises intended for health, defense, or diversion; -- said of games or exercises, as running, leaping, wrestling, throwing the discus, the javelin, etc.; also, pertaining to disciplinary exercises for the intellect; athletic; as, gymnastic exercises, contests, etc.

Hackamore (n.) A halter consisting of a long leather or rope strap and headstall, -- used for leading or tieing a pack animal.

Haemad (adv.) Toward the haemal side; on the haemal side of; -- opposed to neurad.

Haemapodous (a.) Having the limbs on, or directed toward, the ventral or hemal side, as in vertebrates; -- opposed to neuropodous.

Haematitic (a.) Of a blood-red color; crimson; (Bot.) brownish red.

Haematoblast (n.) One of the very minute, disk-shaped bodies found in blood with the ordinary red corpuscles and white corpuscles; a third kind of blood corpuscle, supposed by some to be an early stage in the development of the red corpuscles; -- called also blood plaque, and blood plate.

Haematocrya (n. pl.) The cold-blooded vertebrates. Same as Hematocrya.

Haematocryal (a.) Cold-blooded.

Haematoplastic (a.) Blood formative; -- applied to a substance in early fetal life, which breaks up gradually into blood vessels.

Haematothermal (a.) Warm-blooded; homoiothermal.

Haggard (a.) Having the expression of one wasted by want or suffering; hollow-eyed; having the features distorted or wasted, or anxious in appearance; as, haggard features, eyes.

Halma (n.) The long jump, with weights in the hands, -- the most important of the exercises of the Pentathlon.

Hansard (n.) An official report of proceedings in the British Parliament; -- so called from the name of the publishers.

Harpa (n.) A genus of marine univalve shells; the harp shells; -- so called from the form of the shells, and their ornamental ribs.

Hamfatter (n.) A low-grade actor or performer.

Helianthin (n.) An artificial, orange dyestuff, analogous to tropaolin, and like it used as an indicator in alkalimetry; -- called also methyl orange.

Heptane (n.) Any one of several isometric hydrocarbons, C7H16, of the paraffin series (nine are possible, four are known); -- so called because the molecule has seven carbon atoms. Specifically, a colorless liquid, found as a constituent of petroleum, in the tar oil of cannel coal, etc.

Heptavalent (a.) Having seven units of attractive force or affinity; -- said of heptad elements or radicals.

Hipparion (n.) An extinct genus of Tertiary mammals allied to the horse, but three-toed, having on each foot a small lateral hoof on each side of the main central one. It is believed to be one of the ancestral genera of the Horse family.

Hobnail (n.) A short, sharp-pointed, large-headed nail, -- used in shoeing houses and for studding the soles of heavy shoes.

Hoecake (n.) A cake of Indian meal, water, and salt, baked before the fire or in the ashes; -- so called because often cooked on a hoe.

Hogback (n.) An upward curve or very obtuse angle in the upper surface of any member, as of a timber laid horizontally; -- the opposite of camber.

Hollander (n.) A very hard, semi-glazed, green or dark brown brick, which will not absorb water; -- called also, Dutch clinker.

Hungary (n.) A country in Central Europe, now a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Husband (n.) A married man; a man who has a wife; -- the correlative to wife.

Huaracho (n.) A kind of sandal worn by Indians and the lower classes generally; -- usually used in pl.

Hydra (n.) Any small fresh-water hydroid of the genus Hydra, usually found attached to sticks, stones, etc., by a basal sucker.

Hydrachnid (n.) An aquatic mite of the genus Hydrachna. The hydrachnids, while young, are parasitic on fresh-water mussels.

Hydracid (n.) An acid containing hydrogen; -- sometimes applied to distinguish acids like hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and the like, which contain no oxygen, from the oxygen acids or oxacids. See Acid.

Hypnagogic (a.) Leading to sleep; -- applied to the illusions of one who is half asleep.

Inapathy (n.) Sensibility; feeling; -- opposed to apathy.

Inclave (a.) Resembling a series of dovetails; -- said of a Indian (n.) One of the aboriginal inhabitants of America; -- so called originally from the supposed identity of America with India.

Inflation (n.) Undue expansion or increase, from overissue; -- said of currency.

Infra (adv.) Below; beneath; under; after; -- often used as a prefix.

Infrabranchial (a.) Below the gills; -- applied to the ventral portion of the pallial chamber in the lamellibranchs.

Infralabial (a.) Below the lower lip; -- said of certain scales of reptiles and fishes.

Infralapsarian (n.) One of that class of Calvinists who consider the decree of election as contemplating the apostasy as past and the elect as being at the time of election in a fallen and guilty state; -- opposed to Supralapsarian. The former considered the election of grace as a remedy for an existing evil; the latter regarded the fall as a part of God's original purpose in regard to men.

Infratrochlear (a.) Below a trochlea, or pulley; -- applied esp. to one of the subdivisions of the trigeminal nerve.

Ingratiate (v. t.) To introduce or commend to the favor of another; to bring into favor; to insinuate; -- used reflexively, and followed by with before the person whose favor is sought.

Ingratiate (v. t.) To recommend; to render easy or agreeable; -- followed by to.

Instant (a.) A day of the present or current month; as, the sixth instant; -- an elliptical expression equivalent to the sixth of the month instant, i. e., the current month. See Instant, a., 3.

Intramercurial (a.) Between the planet Mercury and the sun; -- as, the hypothetical Vulcan is intramercurial.

Intramundane (a.) Being within the material world; -- opposed to extramundane.

Intrapetiolar (a.) Situated between the petiole and the stem; -- said of the pair of stipules at the base of a petiole when united by those margins next the petiole, thus seeming to form a single stipule between the petiole and the stem or branch; -- often confounded with interpetiolar, from which it differs essentially in meaning.

Isonandra (n.) A genus of sapotaceous trees of India. Isonandra Gutta is the principal source of gutta-percha.

Issuant (a.) Issuing or coming up; -- a term used to express a charge or bearing rising or coming out of another.

January (n.) The first month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

Jayhawker (n.) A name given to a free-booting, unenlisted, armed man or guerrilla.

Jessant (a.) Springing up or emerging; -- said of a plant or animal.

Jovial (a.) Gay; merry; joyous; jolly; mirth-inspiring; hilarious; characterized by mirth or jollity; as, a jovial youth; a jovial company; a jovial poem.

Kendal () A cloth colored green by dye obtained from the woad-waxen, formerly used by Flemish weavers at Kendal, in Westmoreland, England.

Kinkajou (n.) A nocturnal carnivorous mammal (Cercoleptes caudivolvulus) of South America, about as large as a full-grown cat. It has a prehensile tail and lives in trees. It is the only representative of a distinct family (Cercoleptidae) allied to the raccoons. Called also potto, and honey bear.

Kitcat (a.) Designating a club in London, to which Addison and Steele belonged; -- so called from Christopher Cat, a pastry cook, who served the club with mutton pies.

Kitcat (a.) Designating a canvas used for portraits of a peculiar size, viz., twenty-right or twenty-nine inches by thirty-six; -- so called because that size was adopted by Sir Godfrey Kneller for the portraits he painted of the members of the Kitcat Club.

Klamaths (n. pl.) A collective name for the Indians of several tribes formerly living along the Klamath river, in California and Oregon, but now restricted to a reservation at Klamath Lake; -- called also Clamets and Hamati.

Koulan (n.) A wild horse (Equus, / Asinus, onager) inhabiting the plants of Central Asia; -- called also gour, khur, and onager.

Lackaday (interj.) Alack the day; alas; -- an expression of sorrow, regret, dissatisfaction, or surprise.

Lactamic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an amido acid related to lactic acid, and called also amido-propionic acid.

Lammas (n.) The first day of August; -- called also Lammas day, and Lammastide.

Lampas (n.) An inflammation and swelling of the soft parts of the roof of the mouth immediately behind the fore teeth in the horse; -- called also lampers.

Landau (n.) A four-wheeled covered vehicle, the top of which is divided into two sections which can be let down, or thrown back, in such a manner as to make an open carriage.

Langarey (n.) One of numerous species of long-winged, shrikelike birds of Australia and the East Indies, of the genus Artamus, and allied genera; called also wood swallow.

Lanyard (n.) A short piece of rope or Laplander (n.) A native or inhabitant of Lapland; -- called also Lapp.

Lariat (n.) A long, slender rope made of hemp or strips of hide, esp. one with a noose; -- used as a lasso for catching cattle, horses, etc., and for picketing a horse so that he can graze without wandering.

Larvate (a.) Masked; hence, concealed; obscure; -- applied in medicine to doubtful cases of some diseases; as, larvate pneumonis; larvate epilepsy.

Lazzaroni (n. pl.) The homeless idlers of Naples who live by chance work or begging; -- so called from the Hospital of St. Lazarus, which serves as their refuge.

Leeward (a.) Pertaining to, or in the direction of, the part or side toward which the wind blows; -- opposed to windward; as, a leeward berth; a leeward ship.

Lernaea (n.) A Linnaean genus of parasitic Entomostraca, -- the same as the family Lernaeidae.

Liliaceous (a.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of which the lily, tulip, and hyacinth are well-known examples.

Linkage (n.) Manner of linking or of being linked; -- said of the union of atoms or radicals in the molecule.

Linnaeite (n.) A mineral of pale steel-gray color and metallic luster, occurring in isometric crystals, and also massive. It is a sulphide of cobalt containing some nickel or copper.

Loanable (a.) Such as can be lent; available for lending; as, loanable funds; -- used mostly in financial business and writings.

Lowland (n.) Land which is low with respect to the neighboring country; a low or level country; -- opposed to highland.

Lozenge (n.) A diamond-shaped figure usually with the upper and lower angles slightly acute, borne upon a shield or escutcheon. Cf. Fusil.

lullaby (v. t.) Hence: Good night; good-by.

Lydian (a.) Of or pertaining to Lydia, a country of Asia Minor, or to its inhabitants; hence, soft; effeminate; -- said especially of one of the ancient Greek modes or keys, the music in which was of a soft, pathetic, or voluptuous character.

Luffa (n.) The fibrous skeleton of the fruit, used as a sponge and in the manufacture of caps and women's hats; -- written also loofah.

Madras (n.) A large silk-and-cotton kerchief, usually of bright colors, such as those often used by negroes for turbans.

Margaryize (v. t.) To impregnate (wood) with a preservative solution of copper sulphate (often called Mar"ga*ry's flu"id [-r/z]).

Maccabees (n. pl.) The name given later times to the Asmonaeans, a family of Jewish patriots, who headed a religious revolt in the reign of Antiochus IV., 168-161 B. C., which led to a period of freedom for Israel.

Machairodus (n.) A genus of extinct mammals allied to the cats, and having in the upper jaw canine teeth of remarkable size and strength; -- hence called saber-toothed tigers.

Magdala (a.) Designating an orange-red dyestuff obtained from naphthylamine, and called magdala red, naphthalene red, etc.

Malma (n.) A spotted trout (Salvelinus malma), inhabiting Northern America, west of the Rocky Mountains; -- called also Dolly Varden trout, bull trout, red-spotted trout, and golet.

Malvaceous (a.) Pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of plants (Malvaceae), of which the mallow is the type. The cotton plant, hollyhock, and abutilon are of this order, and the baobab and the silk-cotton trees are now referred to it.

Mamma (n.) Mother; -- word of tenderness and familiarity.

Mammaliferous (a.) Containing mammalian remains; -- said of certain strata.

Mandarin (n.) A small orange, with easily separable rind. It is thought to be of Chinese origin, and is counted a distinct species (Citrus nobilis)mandarin orange; tangerine --.

Manganite (n.) One of the oxides of manganese; -- called also gray manganese ore. It occurs in brilliant steel-gray or iron-black crystals, also massive.

Marcato (a.) In a marked emphatic manner; -- used adverbially as a direction.

Margarate (n.) A compound of the so-called margaric acid with a base.

Margarous (a.) Margaric; -- formerly designating a supposed acid.

Margay (n.) An American wild cat (Felis tigrina), ranging from Mexico to Brazil. It is spotted with black. Called also long-tailed cat.

Mascagnite (n.) Native sulphate of ammonia, found in volcanic districts; -- so named from Mascagni, who discovered it.

Massacre (n.) To kill in considerable numbers where much resistance can not be made; to kill with indiscriminate violence, without necessity, and contrary to the usages of nations; to butcher; to slaughter; -- limited to the killing of human beings.

Matrass (n.) A round-bottomed glass flask having a long neck; a bolthead.

Mattages (n.) A shrike or butcher bird; -- written also matagasse.

Maucaco (n.) A lemur; -- applied to several species, as the White-fronted, the ruffed, and the ring-tailed lemurs.

Medialuna (n.) See Half-moon.

Median (a.) Situated in the middle; lying in a plane dividing a bilateral animal into right and left halves; -- said of unpaired organs and parts; as, median coverts.

Mediant (n.) The third above the keynote; -- so called because it divides the interval between the tonic and dominant into two thirds.

Mediately (adv.) In a mediate manner; by a secondary cause or agent; not directly or primarily; by means; -- opposed to immediately.

Mediatize (v. t.) To cause to act through an agent or to hold a subordinate position; to annex; -- specifically applied to the annexation during the former German empire of a smaller German state to a larger, while allowing it a nominal sovereignty, and its prince his rank.

Menhaden (n.) An American marine fish of the Herring familt (Brevoortia tyrannus), chiefly valuable for its oil and as a component of fertilizers; -- called also mossbunker, bony fish, chebog, pogy, hardhead, whitefish, etc.

Mesial (a.) Middle; median; in, or in the region of, the mesial plane; internal; -- opposed to lateral.

Micraster (n.) A genus of sea urchins, similar to Spatangus, abounding in the chalk formation; -- from the starlike disposal of the ambulacral furrows.

Midland (n.) The interior or central region of a country; -- usually in the plural.

Migrate (v. i.) To pass periodically from one region or climate to another for feeding or breeding; -- said of certain birds, fishes, and quadrupeds.

Mishap (v. i.) To happen unluckily; -- used impersonally.

Mistake (n.) Misconception, error, which when non-negligent may be ground for rescinding a contract, or for refusing to perform it.

Mitrailleuse (n.) A breech-loading machine gun consisting of a number of barrels fitted together, so arranged that the barrels can be fired simultaneously, or successively, and rapidly.

Mockado (n.) A stuff made in imitation of velvet; -- probably the same as mock velvet.

Morganatic (a.) Pertaining to, in the manner of, or designating, a kind of marriage, called also left-handed marriage, between a man of superior rank and a woman of inferior, in which it is stipulated that neither the latter nor her children shall enjoy the rank or inherit the possessions of her husband.

Morgay (n.) The European small-spotted dogfish, or houndfish. See the Note under Houndfish.

Mortar (n.) A short piece of ordnance, used for throwing bombs, carcasses, shells, etc., at high angles of elevation, as 45?, and even higher; -- so named from its resemblance in shape to the utensil above described.

Mortar (n.) A building material made by mixing lime, cement, or plaster of Paris, with sand, water, and sometimes other materials; -- used in masonry for joining stones, bricks, etc., also for plastering, and in other ways.

Morgan (n.) One of a celebrated breed of American trotting horses; -- so called from the name of the stud from which the breed originated in Vermont.

Mudwall (n.) The European bee-eater. See Bee-eater.

Multanimous (a.) Many-minded; many-sided.

Muscardin (n.) The common European dormouse; -- so named from its odor.

Mustaiba (n.) A close-grained, neavy wood of a brownish color, brought from Brazil, and used in turning, for making the handles of tools, and the like.

Mustang (n.) The half-wild horse of the plains in Mexico, California, etc. It is small, hardy, and easily sustained.

Myohaematin (n.) A red-colored respiratory pigment found associated with hemoglobin in the muscle tissue of a large number of animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate.

Nagyagite (n.) A mineral of blackish lead-gray color and metallic luster, generally of a foliated massive structure; foliated tellurium. It is a telluride of lead and gold.

Narrative (a.) Apt or incNectariferous (a.) Secreting nectar; -- said of blossoms or their parts.

Nectarine (n.) A smooth-skinned variety of peach.

Neurad (adv.) Toward the neural side; -- opposed to haemad.

Neural (a.) relating to the nerves or nervous system; taining to, situated in the region of, or on the side with, the neural, or cerebro-spinal, axis; -- opposed to hemal. As applied to vertebrates, neural is the same as dorsal; as applied to invertebrates it is usually the same as ventral. Cf. Hemal.

Nerka (n.) The most important salmon of Alaska (Oncorhinchus nerka), ascending in spring most rivers and lakes from Alaska to Oregon, Washington, and Idaho; -- called also red salmon, redfish, blueback, and sawqui.

Nitratine (n.) A mineral occurring in transparent crystals, usually of a white, sometimes of a reddish gray, or lemon-yellow, color; native sodium nitrate. It is used in making nitric acid and for manure. Called also soda niter.

Nonpareil (a.) Something of unequaled excellence; a peerless thing or person; a nonesuch; -- often used as a name.

Normal (a.) Denoting that series of hydrocarbons in which no carbon atom is united with more than two other carbon atoms; as, normal pentane, hexane, etc. Cf. Iso-.

Norman (n.) A native or inhabitant of Normandy; originally, one of the Northmen or Scandinavians who conquered Normandy in the 10th century; afterwards, one of the mixed (Norman-French) race which conquered England, under William the Conqueror.

Nuchal (a.) Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the back, or nape, of the neck; -- applied especially to the anterior median plate in the carapace of turtles.

Nuphar (n.) A genus of plants found in the fresh-water ponds or lakes of Europe, Asia, and North America; the yellow water lily. Cf. Nymphaea.

Nullah (n.) A water course, esp. a dry one; a gully; a gorge; -- orig. an East Indian term.

Offtake (n.) A channel for taking away air or water; also, the point of beginning of such a channel; a take-off.

Olivaceous (a.) Resembling the olive; of the color of the olive; olive-green.

Omphalotomy (n.) The operation of dividing the navel-string.

Operand (n.) The symbol, quantity, or thing upon which a mathematical operation is performed; -- called also faciend.

Operator (n.) The symbol that expresses the operation to be performed; -- called also facient.

Orchard (n.) An inclosure containing fruit trees; also, the fruit trees, collectively; -- used especially of apples, peaches, pears, cherries, plums, or the like, less frequently of nutbearing trees and of sugar maple trees.

Ordeal (n.) An ancient form of test to determine guilt or innocence, by appealing to a supernatural decision, -- once common in Europe, and still practiced in the East and by savage tribes.

Orgeat (n.) A sirup in which, formerly, a decoction of barley entered, but which is now prepared with an emulsion of almonds, -- used to flavor beverages or edibles.

Orleans (n.) A cloth made of worsted and cotton, -- used for wearing apparel.

Osmiamic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a nitrogenous acid of osmium, H2N2Os2O5, forming a well-known series of yellow salts.

Outhaul (n.) A rope used for hauling out a sail upon a spar; -- opposite of inhaul.

Outward (a.) Forming the superficial part; external; exterior; -- opposed to inward; as, an outward garment or layer.

Ovipara (n. pl.) An artifical division of vertebrates, including those that lay eggs; -- opposed to Vivipara.

Oviparous (a.) Producing young from rggs; as, an oviparous animal, in which the egg is generally separated from the animal, and hatched after exclusion; -- opposed to viviparous.

Oxalan (n.) A complex nitrogenous substance C3N3H5O3 obtained from alloxan (or when urea is fused with ethyl oxamate), as a stable white crystalOxalantin (n.) A white crystalOxheal (n.) Same as Bear's-foot.

Oxheart (n.) A large heart-shaped cherry, either black, red, or white.

Oxidator (n.) A contrivance for causing a current of air to impinge on the flame of the Argand lamp; -- called also oxygenator.

Parnassian (n.) One of a school of French poets of the Second Empire (1852-70) who emphasized metrical form and made the little use of emotion as poetic material; -- so called from the name (Parnasse contemporain) of the volume in which their first poems were collected in 1866.

Palladic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, palladium; -- used specifically to designate those compounds in which the element has a higher valence as contrasted with palladious compounds.

Palladious (a.) Of, pertaining to, or containing, palladium; -- used specifically to designate those compounds in which palladium has a lower valence as compared with palladic compounds.

Palladium (n.) A rare metallic element of the light platinum group, found native, and also alloyed with platinum and gold. It is a silver-white metal resembling platinum, and like it permanent and untarnished in the air, but is more easily fusible. It is unique in its power of occluding hydrogen, which it does to the extent of nearly a thousand volumes, forming the alloy Pd2H. It is used for graduated circles and verniers, for plating certain silver goods, and somewhat in dentistry. It was so > Palmated (a.) Having the distal portion broad, flat, and more or less divided into lobes; -- said of certain corals, antlers, etc.

Pannage (n.) The food of swine in the woods, as beechnuts, acorns, etc.; -- called also pawns.

Pantalet (n.) One of the legs of the loose drawers worn by children and women; particularly, the lower part of such a garment, coming below the knee, often made in a separate piece; -- chiefly in the plural.

Partake (v. i.) To have something of the properties, character, or office; -- usually followed by of.

Parvanimity (n.) The state or quality of having a little or ignoble mind; pettiness; meanness; -- opposed to magnanimity.

Passacaglio (n.) An old Italian or Spanish dance tune, in slow three-four measure, with divisions on a ground bass, resembling a chaconne.

Passant (v. i.) Walking; -- said of any animal on an escutcheon, which is represented as walking with the dexter paw raised.

Pauhaugen (n.) The menhaden; -- called also poghaden.

Peccavi () I have sinned; -- used colloquially to express confession or acknowledgment of an offense.

Pelta (n.) A small shield, especially one of an approximately elliptic form, or crescent-shaped.

Peltated (a.) Shield-shaped; scutiform; (Bot.) having the stem or support attached to the lower surface, instead of at the base or margin; -- said of a leaf or other organ.

Pennated (a.) Winged; plume-shaped.

Pennatula (n.) Any one of numerous species of Pennatula, Pteroides, and allied genera of Alcyonaria, having a featherlike form; a sea-pen. The zooids are situated along one edge of the side branches.

Pentabasic (a.) Capable of uniting with five molecules of a monacid base; having five acid hydrogen atoms capable of substitution by a basic radical; -- said of certain acids.

Pentacid (a.) Capable of neutralizing, or combining with, five molecules of a monobasic acid; having five hydrogen atoms capable of substitution by acid residues; -- said of certain complex bases.

Pentacle (n.) A figure composed of two equilateral triangles intersecting so as to form a six-pointed star, -- used in early ornamental art, and also with superstitious import by the astrologers and mystics of the Middle Ages.

Pentacrostic (n.) A set of verses so disposed that the name forming the subject of the acrostic occurs five times -- the whole set of verses being divided into five different parts from top to bottom.

Pentadecane (n.) A hydrocarbon of the paraffin series, (C15H32) found in petroleum, tar oil, etc., and obtained as a colorless liquid; -- so called from the fifteen carbon atoms in the molecule.

Pentail (n.) A peculiar insectivore (Ptilocercus Lowii) of Borneo; -- so called from its very long, quill-shaped tail, which is scaly at the base and plumose at the tip.

Pentalpha (n.) A five-pointed star, resembling five alphas joined at their bases; -- used as a symbol.

Pentamera (n. pl.) An extensive division of Coleoptera, including those that normally have five-jointed tarsi. It embraces about half of all the known species of the Coleoptera.

Pentamethylene (n.) A hypothetical hydrocarbon, C5H10, metameric with the amylenes, and the nucleus of a large number of derivatives; -- so named because regarded as composed of five methylene residues. Cf. Trimethylene, and Tetramethylene.

Pentastyle (a.) Having five columns in front; -- said of a temple or portico in classical architecture.

Pentateuch (n.) The first five books of the Old Testament, collectively; -- called also the Law of Moses, Book of the Law of Moses, etc.

Pentathionic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid of sulphur obtained by leading hydrogen sulphide into a solution of sulphur dioxide; -- so called because it contains five atoms of sulphur.

Pentavalent (a.) Having a valence of five; -- said of certain atoms and radicals.

Perca (n.) A genus of fishes, including the fresh-water perch.

Percale (n.) A fine cotton fabric, having a Pestalozzian (a.) Belonging to, or characteristic of, a system of elementary education which combined manual training with other instruction, advocated and practiced by Jean Henri Pestalozzi (1746-1827), a Swiss teacher.

Pedrail (n.) A device intended to replace the wheel of a self-propelled vehicle for use on rough roads and to approximate to the smoothness in running of a wheel on a metal track. The tread consists of a number of rubber shod feet which are connected by ball-and-socket joints to the ends of sliding spokes. Each spoke has attached to it a small roller which in its turn runs under a short pivoted rail controlled by a powerful set of springs. This arrangement permits the feet to accomodate themse> Pentathlon (n.) In the modern Olympic Games, a composite contest made up of a running broad jump, throwing the javelin, a 200-meter run, throwing the discus, and a 1500-meter run.

PercaPhalangoidea (n. pl.) A division of Arachnoidea, including the daddy longlegs or harvestman (Phalangium) and many similar kinds. They have long, slender, many-jointed legs; usually a rounded, segmented abdomen; and chelate jaws. They breathe by tracheae. Called also Phalangides, Phalangidea, Phalangiida, and Opilionea.

Phalanx (n.) A body of heavy-armed infantry formed in ranks and files close and deep. There were several different arrangements, the phalanx varying in depth from four to twenty-five or more ranks of men.

Phatagin (n.) The long-tailed pangolin (Manis tetradactyla); -- called also ipi.

Philadelphian (n.) One of a society of mystics of the seventeenth century, -- called also the Family of Love.

Philanthropinism (n.) A system of education on so-called natural principles, attempted in Germany in the last century by Basedow, of Dessau.

Philanthropy (n.) Love to mankind; benevolence toward the whole human family; universal good will; desire and readiness to do good to all men; -- opposed to misanthropy.

Philauty (n.) Self-love; selfishness.

Phreatic (a.) Subterranean; -- applied to sources supplying wells.

Phylactery (n.) A small square box, made either of parchment or of black calfskin, containing slips of parchment or vellum on which are written the scriptural passages Exodus xiii. 2-10, and 11-17, Deut. vi. 4-9, 13-22. They are worn by Jews on the head and left arm, on week-day mornings, during the time of prayer.

Phylactolaemata (n. pl.) An order of fresh-water Bryozoa in which the tentacles are arranged on a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, and the mouth is covered by an epistome. Called also Lophopoda, and hippocrepians.

Physa (n.) A genus of fresh-water Pulmonifera, having reversed spiral shells. See Pond snail, under Pond.

Physalia (n.) A genus of large oceanic Siphonophora which includes the Portuguese man-of-war.

Piccadilly (n.) A high, stiff collar for the neck; also, a hem or band about the skirt of a garment, -- worn by men in the 17th century.

Piccalilli (n.) A pickle of various vegetables with pungent species, -- originally made in the East Indies.

Pindar (n.) The peanut (Arachis hypogaea); -- so called in the West Indies.

Pineapple (n.) A tropical plant (Ananassa sativa); also, its fruit; -- so called from the resemblance of the latter, in shape and external appearance, to the cone of the pine tree. Its origin is unknown, though conjectured to be American.

Pinnace (n.) A man-of-war's boat.

Pinnacle (n.) An architectural member, upright, and generally ending in a small spire, -- used to finish a buttress, to constitute a part in a proportion, as where pinnacles flank a gable or spire, and the like. Pinnacles may be considered primarily as added weight, where it is necessary to resist the thrust of an arch, etc.

Pinnatiped (a.) Having the toes bordered by membranes; fin-footed, as certain birds.

Pintail (n.) A northern duck (Dafila acuta), native of both continents. The adult male has a long, tapering tail. Called also gray duck, piketail, piket-tail, spike-tail, split-tail, springtail, sea pheasant, and gray widgeon.

Pintail (n.) The sharp-tailed grouse of the great plains and Rocky Mountains (Pediocaetes phasianellus); -- called also pintailed grouse, pintailed chicken, springtail, and sharptail.

Pistachio (n.) The nut of the Pistacia vera, a tree of the order Anacardiaceae, containing a kernel of a pale greenish color, which has a pleasant taste, resembling that of the almond, and yields an oil of agreeable taste and odor; -- called also pistachio nut. It is wholesome and nutritive. The tree grows in Arabia, Persia, Syria, and Sicily.

Pitpan (n.) A long, flat-bottomed canoe, used for the navigation of rivers and lagoons in Central America.

Pitta (n.) Any one of a large group of bright-colored clamatorial birds belonging to Pitta, and allied genera of the family Pittidae. Most of the species are varied with three or more colors, such as blue, green, crimson, yellow, purple, and black. They are called also ground thrushes, and Old World ant thrushes; but they are not related to the true thrushes.

Pittacal (n.) A dark blue substance obtained from wood tar. It consists of hydrocarbons which when oxidized form the orange-yellow eupittonic compounds, the salts of which are dark blue.

Plagal (a.) Having a scale running from the dominant to its octave; -- said of certain old church modes or tunes, as opposed to those called authentic, which ran from the tonic to its octave.

Poenamu (n.) A variety of jade or nephrite, -- used in New Zealand for the manufacture of axes and weapons.

Poleaxe (n.) Anciently, a kind of battle-ax with a long handle; later, an ax or hatchet with a short handle, and a head variously patterned; -- used by soldiers, and also by sailors in boarding a vessel.

Polka (n.) A lively Bohemian or Polish dance tune in 2-4 measure, with the third quaver accented.

Polyandry (n.) The possession by a woman of more than one husband at the same time; -- contrasted with monandry.

Polyanthus (n.) The oxlip. So called because the peduncle bears a many-flowered umbel. See Oxlip. (b) A bulbous flowering plant of the genus Narcissus (N. Tazetta, or N. polyanthus of some authors). See Illust. of Narcissus.

Polyarchist (n.) One who advocates polyarchy; -- opposed to monarchist.

Polyautography (n.) The act or practice of multiplying copies of one's own handwriting, or of manuscripts, by printing from stone, -- a species of lithography.

Pompadour (n.) A crimson or pink color; also, a style of dress cut low and square in the neck; also, a mode of dressing the hair by drawing it straight back from the forehead over a roll; -- so called after the Marchioness de Pompadour of France. Also much used adjectively.

Pompano (n.) Any one of several species of marine fishes of the genus Trachynotus, of which four species are found on the Atlantic coast of the United States; -- called also palometa.

Poniard (n.) A kind of dagger, -- usually a slender one with a triangular or square blade.

Poplar (n.) The timber of the tulip tree; -- called also white poplar.

Prelatist (n.) One who supports of advocates prelacy, or the government of the church by prelates; hence, a high-churchman.

Presage (v. i.) To form or utter a prediction; -- sometimes used with of.

Prevail (v. i.) To overcome; to gain the victory or superiority; to gain the advantage; to have the upper hand, or the mastery; to succeed; -- sometimes with over or against.

Prevail (v. i.) To persuade or induce; -- with on, upon, or with; as, I prevailedon him to wait.

Prisage (n.) A right belonging to the crown of England, of taking two tuns of wine from every ship importing twenty tuns or more, -- one before and one behind the mast. By charter of Edward I. butlerage was substituted for this.

Privative (n.) A term indicating the absence of any quality which might be naturally or rationally expected; -- called also privative term.

Proface (interj.) Much good may it do you! -- a familiar salutation or welcome.

Profane (a.) Not sacred or holy; not possessing peculiar sanctity; unconsecrated; hence, relating to matters other than sacred; secular; -- opposed to sacred, religious, or inspired; as, a profane place.

Prolate (a.) Stretched out; extended; especially, elongated in the direction of a Propagable (a.) Capable of being spread or extended by any means; -- said of tenets, doctrines, or principles.

Propaganda (n.) The college of the Propaganda, instituted by Urban VIII. (1623-1644) to educate priests for missions in all parts of the world.

Propagate (v. t.) To cause to continue or multiply by generation, or successive production; -- applied to animals and plants; as, to propagate a breed of horses or sheep; to propagate a species of fruit tree.

Propane (n.) A heavy gaseous hydrocarbon, C3H8, of the paraffin series, occurring naturally dissolved in crude petroleum, and also made artificially; -- called also propyl hydride.

Protasis (n.) The introductory or subordinate member of a sentence, generally of a conditional sentence; -- opposed to apodosis. See Apodosis.

Quarantine (n.) A space of forty days; -- used of Lent.

Quesal (n.) The long-tailed, or resplendent, trogon (Pharomachus mocinno, formerly Trogon resplendens), native of Southern Mexico and Central America. Called also quetzal, and golden trogon.

Quinaldine (n.) A colorless liquid of a slightly pungent odor, C9H6N.CH3, first obtained as a condensation product of aldehyde and aniQuiname (a.) Growing in sets of five; -- said especially of leaves composed of five leaflets set at the end of a common petiole.

Raceabout (n.) A small sloop-rigged racing yacht carrying about six hundred square feet of sail, distinguished from a knockabout by having a short bowsprit.

Rackarock (n.) A Sprengel explosive consisting of potassium chlorate and mono-nitrobenzene.

Ragnarok (n.) The so-called "Twilight of the Gods" (called in German Gotterdammerung), the final destruction of the world in the great conflict between the Aesir (gods) on the one hand, and on the other, the gaints and the powers of Hel under the leadership of Loki (who is escaped from bondage).

Radiant (a.) Giving off rays; -- said of a bearing; as, the sun radiant; a crown radiant.

Radiant (a.) Having a raylike appearance, as the large marginal flowers of certain umbelliferous plants; -- said also of the cluster which has such marginal flowers.

Raglan (n.) A loose overcoat with large sleeves; -- named from Lord Raglan, an English general.

Rampacious (a.) High-spirited; rampageous.

Rampant (v.) Rising with fore paws in the air as if attacking; -- said of a beast of prey, especially a lion. The right fore leg and right hind leg should be raised higher than the left.

Rapparee (n.) A wild Irish plunderer, esp. one of the 17th century; -- so called from his carrying a half-pike, called a rapary.

Rascal (v.) One of the rabble; a low, common sort of person or creature; collectively, the rabble; the common herd; also, a lean, ill-conditioned beast, esp. a deer.

Rascally (a.) Like a rascal; trickish or dishonest; base; worthless; -- often in humorous disparagement, without implication of dishonesty.

Rechabite (n.) One of the descendants of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, all of whom by his injunction abstained from the use of intoxicating drinks and even from planting the vine. Jer. xxxv. 2-19. Also, in modern times, a member of a certain society of abstainers from alcoholic liquors.

Reclaim (v. t.) To reduce from a wild to a tamed state; to bring under discipReclaim (v. t.) To correct; to reform; -- said of things.

Rectangle (n.) A four-sided figure having only right angles; a right-angled parallelogram.

Rectangular (a.) Right-angled; having one or more angles of ninety degrees.

Rectangularity (n.) The quality or condition of being rectangular, or right-angled.

Redtail (n.) The red-tailed hawk.

Refracted (a.) Bent backward angularly, as if half-broken; as, a refracted stem or leaf.

Refraction (n.) The change in the direction of a ray of light, and, consequently, in the apparent position of a heavenly body from which it emanates, arising from its passage through the earth's atmosphere; -- hence distinguished as atmospheric refraction, or astronomical refraction.

Refractory (a.) Resisting ordinary treatment; difficult of fusion, reduction, or the like; -- said especially of metals and the like, which do not readily yield to heat, or to the hammer; as, a refractory ore.

Regrate (v. t.) To buy in large quantities, as corn, provisions, etc., at a market or fair, with the intention of selling the same again, in or near the same place, at a higher price, -- a practice which was formerly treated as a public offense.

Reptant (a.) Creeping; crawling; -- said of reptiles, worms, etc.

Retiary (a.) Constructing or using a web, or net, to catch prey; -- said of certain spiders.

Retractor (n.) In breech-loading firearms, a device for withdrawing a cartridge shell from the barrel.

Release (n.) A catch on a motor-starting rheostat, which automatically releases the rheostat arm and so stops the motor in case of a break in the field circuit; also, the catch on an electromagnetic circuit breaker for a motor, which acts in case of an overload.

Release (n.) In the block-signaling system, a printed card conveying information and instructions to be used at intermediate sidings without telegraphic stations.

Ressaldar (n.) In the Anglo-Indian army, a native commander of a ressala.

Rhatanhy (n.) The powerfully astringent root of a half-shrubby Peruvian plant (Krameria triandra). It is used in medicine and to color port wine.

Rhodammonium (a.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, rhodium and ammonia; -- said of certain complex compounds.

Rhotacism (n.) An oversounding, or a misuse, of the letter r; specifically (Phylol.), the tendency, exhibited in the Indo-European languages, to change s to r, as wese to were.

Rhyparography (n.) In ancient art, the painting of genre or still-life pictures.

Ripsaw (v. t.) A handsaw with coarse teeth which have but a slight set, used for cutting wood in the direction of the fiber; -- called also ripping saw.

Ritualism (n.) Specifically :(a) The principles and practices of those in the Church of England, who in the development of the Oxford movement, so-called, have insisted upon a return to the use in church services of the symbolic ornaments (altar cloths, encharistic vestments, candles, etc.) that were sanctioned in the second year of Edward VI., and never, as they maintain, forbidden by competennt authority, although generally disused. Schaff-Herzog Encyc. (b) Also, the principles and practices> Rockaway () Formerly, a light, low, four-wheeled carriage, with standing top, open at the sides, but having waterproof curtains which could be let down when occasion required; now, a somewhat similar, but heavier, carriage, inclosed, except in front, and having a door at each side.

Rocoa (n.) The orange-colored pulp covering the seeds of the tropical plant Bixa Orellana, from which annotto is prepared. See Annoto.

Rubian (n.) One of several color-producing glycosides found in madder root.

Rummage (n.) A place or room for the stowage of cargo in a ship; also, the act of stowing cargo; the pulling and moving about of packages incident to close stowage; -- formerly written romage.

Rummage (v. t.) To make room in, as a ship, for the cargo; to move about, as packages, ballast, so as to permit close stowage; to stow closely; to pack; -- formerly written roomage, and romage.

Rummager (n.) A person on shipboard whose business was to take charge of stowing the cargo; -- formerly written roomager, and romager.

Sabbaton (n.) A round-toed, armed covering for the feet, worn during a part of the sixteenth century in both military and civil dress.

Sacrament (n.) The oath of allegiance taken by Roman soldiers; hence, a sacred ceremony used to impress an obligation; a solemn oath-taking; an oath.

Sadda (n.) A work in the Persian tongue, being a summary of the Zend-Avesta, or sacred books.

Safranin (n.) An orange-red dyestuff extracted from the saffron.

Safranin (n.) A red dyestuff extracted from the safflower, and formerly used in dyeing wool, silk, and cotton pink and scarlet; -- called also Spanish red, China lake, and carthamin.

Safranin (n.) An orange-red dyestuff prepared from certain nitro compounds of creosol, and used as a substitute for the safflower dye.

Safranine (n.) An orange-red nitrogenous dyestuff produced artificially by oxidizing certain aniSalpa (n.) A genus of transparent, tubular, free-swimming oceanic tunicates found abundantly in all the warmer latitudes. See Illustration in Appendix.

Saltant (v.) In a leaping position; springing forward; -- applied especially to the squirrel, weasel, and rat, also to the cat, greyhound, monkey, etc.

Saltarello (n.) A popular Italian dance in quick 3-4 or 6-8 time, running mostly in triplets, but with a hop step at the beginning of each measure. See Tarantella.

Sandarac (n.) A white or yellow resin obtained from a Barbary tree (Callitris quadrivalvis or Thuya articulata), and pulverized for pounce; -- probably so called from a resemblance to the mineral.

Sangaree (n.) Wine and water sweetened and spiced, -- a favorite West Indian drink.

Santalic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or obtained from, sandalwood (Santalum); -- used specifically to designate an acid obtained as a resinous or red crystalSatiate (a.) Filled to satiety; glutted; sated; -- followed by with or of.

Scalar (n.) In the quaternion analysis, a quantity that has magnitude, but not direction; -- distinguished from a vector, which has both magnitude and direction.

Scarabee (n.) A stylized representation of a scarab beetle in stone or faience; -- a symbol of resurrection, used by the ancient Egyptians as an ornament or a talisman, and in modern times used in jewelry, usually by engraving designs on cabuchon stones. Also used attributively; as, a scarab bracelet [a bracelet containing scarabs]; a scarab [the carved stone itelf].

Scutate (a.) Buckler-shaped; round or nearly round.

Seaman (n.) One whose occupation is to assist in the management of ships at sea; a mariner; a sailor; -- applied both to officers and common mariners, but especially to the latter. Opposed to landman, or landsman.

Selvagee (n.) A skein or hank of rope yarns wound round with yarns or marSensationalism (n.) The doctrine held by Condillac, and by some ascribed to Locke, that our ideas originate solely in sensation, and consist of sensations transformed; sensualism; -- opposed to intuitionalism, and rationalism.

Sexradiate (a.) Having six rays; -- said of certain sponge spicules. See Illust. of Spicule.

Sextant (n.) An instrument for measuring angular distances between objects, -- used esp. at sea, for ascertaining the latitude and longitude. It is constructed on the same optical principle as Hadley's quadrant, but usually of metal, with a nicer graduation, telescopic sight, and its arc the sixth, and sometimes the third, part of a circle. See Quadrant.

Seecatch (n.) A full-grown male fur seal.

Sfumato (a.) Having vague outShamanism (n.) The type of religion which once prevalied among all the Ural-Altaic peoples (Tungusic, Mongol, and Turkish), and which still survives in various parts of Northern Asia. The Shaman, or wizard priest, deals with good as well as with evil spirits, especially the good spirits of ancestors.

Shiraz (n.) A kind of Persian wine; -- so called from the place whence it is brought.

Sicca (n.) A seal; a coining die; -- used adjectively to designate the silver currency of the Mogul emperors, or the Indian rupee of 192 grains.

Simia (n.) A Linnaean genus of Quadrumana which included the types of numerous modern genera. By modern writers it is usually restricted to the genus which includes the orang-outang.

Simpai (n.) A long-tailed monkey (Semnopitchecus melalophus) native of Sumatra. It has a crest of black hair. The forehead and cheeks are fawn color, the upper parts tawny and red, the under parts white. Called also black-crested monkey, and sinpae.

Sirdar (n.) In Turkey, Egypt, etc., a commander in chief, esp. the one commanding the Anglo-Egyptian army.

Skylark (n.) A lark that mounts and sings as it files, especially the common species (Alauda arvensis) found in Europe and in some parts of Asia, and celebrated for its melodious song; -- called also sky laverock. See under Lark.

Socialism (n.) A theory or system of social reform which contemplates a complete reconstruction of society, with a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor. In popular usage, the term is often employed to indicate any lawless, revolutionary social scheme. See Communism, Fourierism, Saint-Simonianism, forms of socialism.

Socratical (a.) Of or pertaining to Socrates, the Grecian sage and teacher. (b. c. 469-399), or to his manner of teaching and philosophizing.

Sowbane (n.) The red goosefoot (Chenopodium rubrum), -- said to be fatal to swine.

Sparada (n.) A small California surf fish (Micrometrus aggregatus); -- called also shiner.

Spatangoidea (n. pl.) An order of irregular sea urchins, usually having a more or less heart-shaped shell with four or five petal-like ambulacra above. The mouth is edentulous and situated anteriorly, on the under side.

Spatangus (n.) A genus of heart-shaped sea urchins belonging to the Spatangoidea.

Spica (n.) A kind of bandage passing, by successive turns and crosses, from an extremity to the trunk; -- so called from its resemblance to a spike of a barley.

Spirant (n.) A term used differently by different authorities; -- by some as equivalent to fricative, -- that is, as including all the continuous consonants, except the nasals m, n, ng; with the further exception, by others, of the liquids r, l, and the semivowels w, y; by others limited to f, v, th surd and sonant, and the sound of German ch, -- thus excluding the sibilants, as well as the nasals, liquids, and semivowels. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 197-208.

Sporades (n. pl.) Stars not included in any constellation; -- called also informed, or unformed, stars.

Spread (v. t.) To divulge; to publish, as news or fame; to cause to be more extensively known; to disseminate; to make known fully; as, to spread a report; -- often acompanied by abroad.

Squeaker (n.) The Australian gray crow shrile (Strepera anaphonesis); -- so called from its note.

Stomatode (a.) Having a mouth; -- applied to certain Protozoa.

Styca (n.) An anglo-Saxon copper coin of the lowest value, being worth half a farthing.

Submarine (n.) A submarine boat; esp., Nav., a submarine torpedo boat; -- called specif. submergible submarine when capable of operating at various depths and of traveling considerable distances under water, and submersible submarine when capable of being only partly submerged, i.e., so that the conning tower, etc., is still above water. The latter type and most of the former type are submerged as desired by regulating the amount of water admitted to the ballast tanks and sink on an even keel;> Sultan (n.) A ruler, or sovereign, of a Mohammedan state; specifically, the ruler of the Turks; the Padishah, or Grand Seignior; -- officially so called.

Sunday (n.) The first day of the week, -- consecrated among Christians to rest from secular employments, and to religious worship; the Christian Sabbath; the Lord's Day.

Supra (adv.) Over; above; before; also, beyond; besides; -- much used as a prefix.

Suprabranchial (a.) Situated above the branchiae; -- applied especially to the upper division of the gill cavity of bivalve mollusks.

Suprachoroidal (a.) Situated above the choroid; -- applied to the layer of the choroid coat of the eyeball next to the sclerotic.

Supraclavicle (n.) A bone which usually connects the clavicle with the post-temporal in the pectorial arch of fishes.

Supraglotic (a.) Situated above the glottis; -- applied to that part of the cavity of the larynx above the true vocal cords.

Suprahepatic (a.) Situated over, or on the dorsal side of, the liver; -- applied to the branches of the hepatic veins.

Supraocular (a.) Above the eyes; -- said of certain scales of fishes and reptiles.

Surbased (a.) Having the vertical height from springing Sustaltic (a.) Mournful; -- said of a species of music among the ancient Greeks.

Sylvanite (n.) A telluride of gold and silver, (Au, Ag)Te2, of a steel gray, silver white, or brass yellow. It often occurs in implanted crystals resembling written characters, and hence is called graphic tellurium. H., 1.5-2. Sp.gr., 7.9-8.3.

Sylvan (n.) A liquid hydrocarbon obtained together with furfuran (tetrol) by the distillation of pine wood; -- called also methyl tetrol, or methyl furfuran.

Sylvanite (n.) A mineral, a telluride of gold and silver, of a steel-gray, silver-white, or brass-yellow color. It often occurs in implanted crystals resembling written characters, and hence is called graphic tellurium.

Sympathetic (a.) Produced by sympathy; -- applied particularly to symptoms or affections. See Sympathy.

Sympathy (n.) Feeling corresponding to that which another feels; the quality of being affected by the affection of another, with feelings correspondent in kind, if not in degree; fellow-feeling.

Syncategorematic (a.) Not capable of being used as a term by itself; -- said of words, as an adverb or preposition.

Tagtail (n.) A person who attaches himself to another against the will of the latter; a hanger-on.

Tantalite (n.) A heavy mineral of an iron-black color and submetallic luster. It is essentially a tantalate of iron.

Tantalum (n.) A rare nonmetallic element found in certain minerals, as tantalite, samarskite, and fergusonite, and isolated as a dark powder which becomes steel-gray by burnishing. Symbol Ta. Atomic weight 182.0. Formerly called also tantalium.

Tartar (n.) A reddish crust or sediment in wine casks, consisting essentially of crude cream of tartar, and used in marking pure cream of tartar, tartaric acid, potassium carbonate, black flux, etc., and, in dyeing, as a mordant for woolen goods; -- called also argol, wine stone, etc.

Tartar (n.) A native or inhabitant of Tartary in Asia; a member of any one of numerous tribes, chiefly Moslem, of Turkish origin, inhabiting the Russian Europe; -- written also, more correctly but less usually, Tatar.

Tartarous (a.) Resembling, or characteristic of, a Tartar; ill-natured; irritable.

Tasmanian (a.) Of or pertaining to Tasmania, or Van Diemen's Land. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Tasmania; specifically (Ethnol.), in the plural, the race of men that formerly inhabited Tasmania, but is now extinct.

Taotai (n.) In China, an official at the head of the civil and military affairs of a circuit, which consists of two or more fu, or territorial departments; -- called also, by foreigners, intendant of circuit. Foreign consuls and commissioners associated with taotais as superintendants of trade at the treaty ports are ranked with the taotai.

Tennantite (n.) A blackish lead-gray mineral, closely related to tetrahedrite. It is essentially a sulphide of arsenic and copper.

Tentaculocyst (n.) One of the auditory organs of certain medusae; -- called also auditory tentacle.

Termagant (n.) A boisterous, brawling, turbulent person; -- formerly applied to both sexes, now only to women.

Terrane (n.) A group of rocks having a common age or origin; -- nearly equivalent to formation, but used somewhat less comprehensively.

Tersanctus (n.) An ancient ascription of praise (containing the word "Holy" -- in its Latin form, "Sanctus" -- thrice repeated), used in the Mass of the Roman Catholic Church and before the prayer of consecration in the communion service of the Church of England and the Protestant Episcopal Church. Cf. Trisagion.

Testament (n.) One of the two distinct revelations of God's purposes toward man; a covenant; also, one of the two general divisions of the canonical books of the sacred Scriptures, in which the covenants are respectively revealed; as, the Old Testament; the New Testament; -- often limited, in colloquial language, to the latter.

Testamur (n.) A certificate of merit or proficiency; -- so called from the Latin words, Ita testamur, with which it commences.

Tetrabasic (a.) Capable of neutralizing four molecules of a monacid base; having four hydrogen atoms capable of replacement by bases; quadribasic; -- said of certain acids; thus, normal silicic acid, Si(OH)4, is a tetrabasic acid.

Tetracid (a.) Capable of neutralizing four molecules of a monobasic acid; having four hydrogen atoms capable of replacement ba acids or acid atoms; -- said of certain bases; thus, erythrine, C4H6(OH)4, is a tetracid alcohol.

Tetradecane (n.) A light oily hydrocarbon, C14H30, of the marsh-gas series; -- so called from the fourteen carbon atoms in the molecule.

Tetradymite (n.) A telluride of bismuth. It is of a pale steel-gray color and metallic luster, and usually occurs in foliated masses. Called also telluric bismuth.

Tetrahexahedron (n.) A solid in the isometric system, bounded by twenty-four equal triangular faces, four corresponding to each face of the cube.

Tetrakosane (n.) A hydrocarbon, C24H50, resembling paraffin, and like it belonging to the marsh-gas series; -- so called from having twenty-four atoms of carbon in the molecule.

Tetramerous (a.) Having four joints in each of the tarsi; -- said of certain insects.

Tetramethylene (n.) A hypothetical hydrocarbon, C4H8, analogous to trimethylene, and regarded as the base of well-known series or derivatives.

Tetrastyle (a.) Having four columns in front; -- said of a temple, portico, or colonnade.

Tetraxile (a.) Having four branches diverging at right angles; -- said of certain spicules of sponges.

Thalamiflorous (a.) Bearing the stamens directly on the receptacle; -- said of a subclass of polypetalous dicotyledonous plants in the system of De Candolle.

Thalamus (n.) A mass of nervous matter on either side of the third ventricle of the brain; -- called also optic thalamus.

Thalassic (a.) Of or pertaining to the sea; -- sometimes applied to rocks formed from sediments deposited upon the sea bottom.

Thenadays (adv.) At that time; then; in those days; -- correlative to nowadays.

Thesaurus (n.) A treasury or storehouse; hence, a repository, especially of knowledge; -- often applied to a comprehensive work, like a dictionary or cyclopedia.

Theta (n.) A letter of the Greek alphabet corresponding to th in English; -- sometimes called the unlucky letter, from being used by the judges on their ballots in passing condemnation on a prisoner, it being the first letter of the Greek qa`natos, death.

Throat (n.) Hence, the passage through it to the stomach and lungs; the pharynx; -- sometimes restricted to the fauces.

Throat (n.) The upper fore corner of a boom-and-gaff sail, or of a staysail.

Throatwort (n.) A plant (Campanula Trachelium) formerly considered a remedy for sore throats because of its throat-shaped corolla.

Timbale (n.) A seasoned preparation, as of chicken, lobster, cheese, or fish, cooked in a drum-shaped mold; also, a pastry case, usually small, filled with a cooked mixture.

Tombac (n.) An alloy of copper and zinc, resembling brass, and containing about 84 per cent of copper; -- called also German, / Dutch, brass. It is very malleable and ductile, and when beaten into thin leaves is sometimes called Dutch metal. The addition of arsenic makes white tombac.

Topsail (n.) In a square-rigged vessel, the sail next above the lowermost sail on a mast. This sail is the one most frequently reefed or furled in working the ship. In a fore-and-aft rigged vessel, the sail set upon and above the gaff. See Cutter, Schooner, Sail, and Ship.

Toucan (n.) Any one of numerous species of fruit-eating birds of tropical America belonging to Ramphastos, Pteroglossus, and allied genera of the family Ramphastidae. They have a very large, but light and thin, beak, often nearly as long as the body itself. Most of the species are brilliantly colored with red, yellow, white, and black in striking contrast.

Tonga (n.) A kind of light two-wheeled vehicle, usually for four persons, drawn by ponies or bullocks.

Trisaccharide () Alt. of -rid

Trehalose (n.) Mycose; -- so called because sometimes obtained from trehala.

Tremando (a.) Trembling; -- used as a direction to perform a passage with a general shaking of the whole chord.

Trepan (n.) A crown-saw or cylindrical saw for perforating the skull, turned, when used, like a bit or gimlet. See Trephine.

Trepang (n.) Any one of several species of large holothurians, some of which are dried and extensively used as food in China; -- called also beche de mer, sea cucumber, and sea slug.

Tribasic (a.) Capable of neutralizing three molecules of a monacid base, or their equivalent; having three hydrogen atoms capable of replacement by basic elements on radicals; -- said of certain acids; thus, citric acid is a tribasic acid.

Trigamous (a.) Having three sorts of flowers in the same head, -- male, female, and hermaphrodite, or perfect, flowers.

Trigastric (a.) Having three bellies; -- said of a muscle.

Trilateral (a.) Having three sides; being three-sided; as, a trilateral triangle.

Triparted (a.) Parted into three piece; having three parts or pieces; -- said of the field or of a bearing; as, a cross triparted.

Tripartient (a.) Dividing into three parts; -- said of a number which exactly divides another into three parts.

Trisacramentarian (n.) One who recognizes three sacraments, and no more; -- namely, baptism, the Lord's Supper, and penance. See Sacrament.

Trisagion (n.) An ancient anthem, -- usually known by its Latin name tersanctus.See Tersanctus.

Trivalent (a.) Having a valence of three; capable of being combined with, substituted for, or compared with, three atoms of hydrogen; -- said of triad atoms or radicals; thus, nitrogen is trivalent in ammonia.

Trivalvular (a.) Having three valves; three-valved.

Trona (n.) A native double salt, consisting of a combination of neutral and acid sodium carbonate, Na2CO3.2HNaCO3.2H2O, occurring as a white crystalTropaeolin (n.) A name given to any one of a series of orange-red dyestuffs produced artificially from certain complex sulphonic acid derivatives of azo and diazo hydrocarbons of the aromatic series; -- so called because of the general resemblance to the shades of nasturtium (Tropaeolum).

Trysail (n.) A fore-and-aft sail, bent to a gaff, and hoisted on a lower mast or on a small mast, called the trysail mast, close abaft a lower mast; -- used chiefly as a storm sail. Called also spencer.

Tuefall (n.) See To-fall.

Tuscan (a.) Of or pertaining to Tuscany in Italy; -- specifically designating one of the five orders of architecture recognized and described by the Italian writers of the 16th century, or characteristic of the order. The original of this order was not used by the Greeks, but by the Romans under the Empire. See Order, and Illust. of Capital.

Tutsan (n.) A plant of the genus Hypericum (H. Androsoemum), from which a healing ointment is prepared in Spain; -- called also parkleaves.

Tuatara (n.) A large iguanalike reptile (Sphenodon punctatum) formerly common in New Zealand, but now confined to certain islets near the coast. It reaches a length of two and a half feet, is dark olive-green with small white or yellowish specks on the sides, and has yellow spines along the back, except on the neck.

Tupian (a.) Designating, or pert. to, a linguistic stock of South American Indians comprising the most important Brazilian tribes. Agriculture, pottery, and stone working were practiced by them at the time of the conquest. The Tupi and the Guarani were originally the most powerful of the stock, which is hence also called Tupi-Guaranian.

Tympano (n.) A kettledrum; -- chiefly used in the plural to denote the kettledrums of an orchestra. See Kettledrum.

Tympanum (n.) A drum-shaped wheel with spirally curved partitions by which water is raised to the axis when the wheel revolves with the lower part of the circumference submerged, -- used for raising water, as for irrigation.

Ullmannite (n.) A brittle mineral of a steel-gray color and metallic luster, containing antimony, arsenic, sulphur, and nickel.

Ultramontanism (n.) The principles of those within the Roman Catholic Church who maintain extreme views favoring the pope's supremacy; -- so used by those living north of the Alps in reference to the Italians; -- rarely used in an opposite sense, as referring to the views of those living north of the Alps and opposed to the papal claims. Cf. Gallicanism.

Ultraviolet (a.) Lying outside the visible spectrum at its violet end; -- said of rays more refrangible than the extreme violet rays of the spectrum.

Umbra (n.) The conical shadow projected from a planet or satellite, on the side opposite to the sun, within which a spectator could see no portion of the sun's disk; -- used in contradistinction from penumbra. See Penumbra.

Umbra (n.) The fainter part of a sun spot; -- now more commonly called penumbra.

Umbra (n.) Any one of several species of sciaenoid food fishes of the genus Umbrina, especially the Mediterranean species (U. cirrhosa), which is highly esteemed as a market fish; -- called also ombre, and umbrine.

Umbraculiform (a.) Having the form of anything that serves to shade, as a tree top, an umbrella, and the like; specifically (Bot.), having the form of an umbrella; umbrella-shaped.

Unchancy (a.) Ill-fated; unlucky.

Ungka (n.) The siamang; -- called also ungka ape.

Unicameral (a.) Having, or consisting of, a single chamber; -- said of a legislative assembly.

Unilateral (a.) Being on one side only; affecting but one side; one-sided.

Unilateral (a.) Pertaining to one side; one-sided; as, a unilateral raceme, in which the flowers grow only on one side of a common axis, or are all turned to one side.

Uniparous (a.) Producing but one axis of inflorescence; -- said of the scorpioid cyme.

Univalent (a.) Having a valence of one; capable of combining with, or of being substituted for, one atom of hydrogen; monovalent; -- said of certain atoms and radicals.

Unseasonable (a.) Not seasonable; being, done, or occurring out of the proper season; ill-timed; untimely; too early or too late; as, he called at an unseasonable hour; unseasonable advice; unseasonable frosts; unseasonable food.

Unseasoned (a.) Untimely; ill-timed.

Upbraid (v. t.) To charge with something wrong or disgraceful; to reproach; to cast something in the teeth of; -- followed by with or for, and formerly of, before the thing imputed.

Upbraid (v. t.) To object or urge as a matter of reproach; to cast up; -- with to before the person.

Urogastric (a.) Behind the stomach; -- said of two lobes of the carapace of certain crustaceans.

Urohaematin (n.) Urinary haematin; -- applied to the normal coloring matter of the urine, on the supposition that it is formed either directly or indirectly (through bilirubin) from the haematin of the blood. See Urochrome, and Urobilin.

Usucaption (n.) The acquisition of the title or right to property by the uninterrupted possession of it for a certain term prescribed by law; -- the same as prescription in common law.

Valuable (n.) A precious possession; a thing of value, especially a small thing, as an article of jewelry; -- used mostly in the plural.

Valvata (n.) A genus of small spiral fresh-water gastropods having an operculum.

Valvate (a.) Meeting at the edges without overlapping; -- said of the sepals or the petals of flowers in aestivation, and of leaves in vernation.

Variable (n.) A quantity which may increase or decrease; a quantity which admits of an infinite number of values in the same expression; a variable quantity; as, in the equation x2 - y2 = R2, x and y are variables.

Variable (n.) Those parts of the sea where a steady wind is not expected, especially the parts between the trade-wind belts.

Variance (n.) A disagreement or difference between two parts of the same legal proceeding, which, to be effectual, ought to agree, -- as between the writ and the declaration, or between the allegation and the proof.

Ventail (n.) That part of a helmet which is intended for the admission of air, -- sometimes in the visor.

Vibrator (n.) An ink-distributing roller in a printing machine, having an additional vibratory motion.

Vernacular (a.) Belonging to the country of one's birth; one's own by birth or nature; native; indigenous; -- now used chiefly of language; as, English is our vernacular language.

Versatile (a.) Turning with ease from one thing to another; readily applied to a new task, or to various subjects; many-sided; as, versatile genius; a versatile politician.

Vestales (n. pl.) A group of butterflies including those known as virgins, or gossamer-winged butterflies.

Villainous (a.) Sorry; mean; mischievous; -- in a familiar sense.

ViolaniVirgalieu (n.) A valuable kind of pear, of an obovate shape and with melting flesh of delicious flavor; -- more properly called White Doyenne.

Virgate (a.) Having the form of a straight rod; wand-shaped; straight and slender.

Virial (n.) A certain function relating to a system of forces and their points of application, -- first used by Clausius in the investigation of problems in molecular physics.

Viscacha (n.) Alt. of Viz-cacha

Volcano (n.) A mountain or hill, usually more or less conical in form, from which lava, cinders, steam, sulphur gases, and the like, are ejected; -- often popularly called a burning mountain.

Volta (n.) A turning; a time; -- chiefly used in phrases signifying that the part is to be repeated one, two, or more times; as, una volta, once. Seconda volta, second time, points to certain modifications in the close of a repeated strain.

Vulcan (n.) The god of fire, who presided over the working of metals; -- answering to the Greek Hephaestus.

Vulcanization (n.) The act or process of imparting to caoutchouc, gutta-percha, or the like, greater elasticity, durability, or hardness by heating with sulphur under pressure.

Vulgate (a.) An ancient Latin version of the Scripture, and the only version which the Roman Church admits to be authentic; -- so called from its common use in the Latin Church.

Wallah (n.) A black variety of the jaguar; -- called also tapir tiger.

Wangan (n.) A boat for conveying provisions, tools, etc.; -- so called by Maine lumbermen.

Wariangle (n.) The red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio); -- called also wurger, worrier, and throttler.

Warsaw (n.) The jewfish; -- called also guasa.

Wassail (n.) The liquor used for a wassail; esp., a beverage formerly much used in England at Christmas and other festivals, made of ale (or wine) flavored with spices, sugar, toast, roasted apples, etc.; -- called also lamb's wool.

Weasand (n.) The windpipe; -- called also, formerly, wesil.

Welfare (n.) Well-doing or well-being in any respect; the enjoyment of health and the common blessings of life; exemption from any evil or calamity; prosperity; happiness.

Wigwag (v. t. & i.) Act or art of wigwagging; a message wigwagged; -- chiefly attributive; as, the wigwag code.

Wigwam (n.) An Indian cabin or hut, usually of a conical form, and made of a framework of poles covered with hides, bark, or mats; -- called also tepee.

Wiseacre (v.) One who makes undue pretensions to wisdom; a would-be-wise person; hence, in contempt, a simpleton; a dunce.

Withal (prep.) With; -- put after its object, at the end of sentence or clause in which it stands.

Writative (a.) IncYardarm (n.) Either half of a square-rigged vessel's yard, from the center or mast to the end.

Yunca (n.) An Indian of a linguistic stock of tribes of the Peruvian coast who had a developed agricultural civilization at the advent of the Spaniards, before which they had been conquered by the Incas. They constructed irrigation canals which are still in use, adorned their buildings with bas-reliefs and frescoes, and were skilled goldsmiths and silversmiths.





About the author

Mark McCracken

Author: Mark McCracken is a corporate trainer and author living in Higashi Osaka, Japan. He is the author of thousands of online articles as well as the Business English textbook, "25 Business Skills in English".

Copyright © 2011 Mark McCracken , All Rights Reserved.